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The Glorious Revolution, or Revolution of 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.

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  • The Glorious Revolution, or Revolution of 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • {{Infobox historical event |Event_Name = Glorious Revolution |Image_Name = Prince of Orange engraving by William Miller after Turner R739.jpg |Imagesize = 250px |Image_Caption = William III of England Prince of Orange Landing at Torbayengraving by William Miller (1852) |AKA =
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's cousin-husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter, Mary II, and Dutch nephew—Mary's cousin-husband, William III of Orange—which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The immediate outcome in all three kingdoms was an all-but-bloodless transfer of power, yet establishing the new regime took longer and led to significant casualties. John Hampden coined the name in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688, (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688, or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of Nokember 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, is the name commonly used for the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. It was first used by John Hampden in late 1689.
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  • Glorious Revolution
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  • The Glorious Revolution, or Revolution of 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions like the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James' political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution, or Revolution of 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James' political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • {{Infobox historical event |Event_Name = Glorious Revolution |Image_Name = Prince of Orange engraving by William Miller after Turner R739.jpg |Imagesize = 250px |Image_Caption = William III of England Prince of Orange Landing at Torbayengraving by William Miller (1852) |AKA = * Revolution of 1688 * War of the English Succession * Bloodless Revolution |Participants = English, Welsh, Irish and Scottish society, Dutch forces |Location = British Isles |Date = 1688–1689 |Result = * Replacement of James II by William III of England and Mary II * Jacobite rising of 1689 * Williamite War in Ireland * Nine Years' War with France; England and Scotland join Grand Alliance * Drafting of the Bill of Rights 1689 The Glorious Revolution, or Revolution of 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James' political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James' political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts, and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's cousin-husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. His religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts, and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter, Mary II, and Dutch nephew—Mary's cousin-husband, William III of Orange—which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The immediate outcome in all three kingdoms was an all-but-bloodless transfer of power, yet establishing the new regime took longer and led to significant casualties. John Hampden coined the name in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support for many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Most thought his religion a short-term issue as his Protestant daughter, Mary, was heir presumptive; he was 52; and his second marriage to a catholic, Mary of Modena, remained childless after 11 years. The birth of a son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this as male primogeniture raised the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they would not repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts. His efforts to rule without them caused the very instability his supporters had sought to avoid. His supporters in England, chiefly Tory members of the Church of England, remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to a full trial on 30 June 1688, though they were acquitted, led to anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland; and the debacle destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was the de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the Anglo-French alliance threatened the coalition he built after 1678 to defend against French expansion. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000-strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered the remnant disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; and a separate but similar Scottish settlement came in June. Pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland followed, and Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political disputes by confirming the supremacy of Parliament over Crown, a principle outlined in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of a spouse were in place until 2015, and restrictions on the monarch's religion remain in place.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter, Mary II, and Dutch nephew—Mary's cousin-husband, William III of Orange—which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The immediate outcome in all three kingdoms was an all-but-bloodless transfer of power, yet establishing the new regime took longer and led to significant casualties. John Hampden coined the name in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Most thought his religion a short-term issue as his Protestant daughter, Mary, was heir presumptive; he was 52; and his second marriage to a catholic, Mary of Modena, remained childless after 11 years. The birth of a son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this as male primogeniture raised the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they would not repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts. His efforts to rule without them caused the very instability his supporters had sought to avoid. His supporters in England, chiefly Tory members of the Church of England, remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to a full trial on 30 June 1688, though they were acquitted, led to anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland; and the debacle destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was the de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the Anglo-French alliance threatened the coalition he built after 1678 to defend against French expansion. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000-strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered the remnant disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; and a separate but similar Scottish settlement came in June. Pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland followed, and Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political disputes by confirming the supremacy of Parliament over Crown, a principle outlined in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of a spouse were in place until 2015, and restrictions on the monarch's religion remain in place.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his daughter, Mary II, and Dutch nephew—Mary's cousin-husband, William III of Orange—which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The immediate outcome in all three kingdoms was an all-but-bloodless transfer of power, yet establishing the new regime took longer and led to significant casualties. John Hampden coined the name in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Most thought his religion a short-term issue as his Protestant daughter, Mary, was heir presumptive; he was 52; and his second marriage to a catholic, Mary of Modena, remained childless after 11 years. The birth of a son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this as male primogeniture raised the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they would not repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts. His efforts to rule without them caused the very instability his supporters had sought to avoid. His supporters in England, chiefly Tory members of the Church of England, remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to a full trial on 30 June 1688, though they were acquitted, led to anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland; and the debacle destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was the de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the Anglo-French alliance threatened the coalition he built after 1678 to defend against French expansion. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000-strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered the remnant disbanded and went into exile in December.. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; and a separate but similar Scottish settlement came in June. Pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland followed, and Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political disputes by confirming the supremacy of Parliament over Crown, a principle outlined in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of a spouse were in place until 2015, and restrictions on the monarch's religion remain in place.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since he was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts, and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts, and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial (albeit they were acquitted) on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts, and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions such as the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. With political support from allies in England, Scotland and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In July, a coalition of English politicians invited William to secure the English throne. As stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic; the coalition he built after 1678 to defend it against French expansion was threatened by an Anglo-French alliance. A fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In July, a coalition of English politicians invited William to secure the English throne. Louis XIV of France was then preparing to launch the Nine Years War, which was a direct threat to the Dutch Republic; concerned English resources might be used against him, William therefore accepted. A fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November. As he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000; James ordered these remnants disbanded and went into exile in December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In July, a coalition of English politicians invited William to secure the English throne. Louis XIV of France was then preparing to launch the Nine Years War, which was a direct threat to the Dutch Republic; concerned English resources might be used against him, William therefore accepted. On 5 November, he landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In July, a coalition of English politicians invited William to military intervene. Louis XIV of France was then preparing to launch the Nine Years War, which was a direct threat to the Dutch Republic, of which [stadholder]] William was the de facto ruler. Concerned that English resources might be used against him, he had already in April agreed to accept. On 5 November, he landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In July, a coalition of English politicians invited William to military intervene. Louis XIV of France was then preparing to launch the Nine Years War, which was a direct threat to the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned that English resources might be used against him, he had already in April agreed to accept. On 5 November, he landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, was the deposition and replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland by his Protestant daughter Mary II, and her husband, William III of Orange, which took place between November 1688 and May 1689. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support since many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue; James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his daughter Mary was heir presumptive. This changed on 10 June 1688 with the birth of a son, James Francis Edward; under the principle of male primogeniture, he replaced Mary as heir, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. This combined with instability caused when James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments and tried to rule by personal decree. The prosecution of the Seven Bishops further antagonised his English supporters, since it was seen as a direct assault on the Church of England. Public celebrations of their acquittal on 30 June 1688 turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In July, a coalition of English politicians invited William to militarily intervene. Louis XIV of France was then preparing to launch the Nine Years War, which was a direct threat to the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned that English resources might be used against him, he had already in April agreed to accept. On 5 November, he landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688, (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar, Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor or Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688, or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of Nokember 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the Royally involved prosecution of the Seven Bishops, this, as to one, involved a series of rebuffs against the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000 strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the Royally involved prosecution of the Seven Bishops, this, as to one, involved a series of rebuffs against the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the Royally involved prosecution of the Seven Bishops, this, as to one, involved a series of rebuffs against the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by establishing the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle enunciated in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, and replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II, and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years' War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, covers events leading to the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. While the Revolution was quick and relatively bloodless, establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties. The term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments and ruling by personal decree. The birth of a Catholic heir coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years' War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. The Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century. However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were not removed until 2015, while restrictions on the monarch personally remain in place today.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, is the name commonly used for the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. It was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments in 1685 and ruling by personal decree. It also coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years' War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. While the Revolution itself was quick and relatively bloodless, pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland caused significant casualties. Although Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century, the Revolution ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; while religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were removed in 2015, those applying to the monarch remain.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, is the name commonly used for the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. It was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments in 1685 and ruling by personal decree. It also coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years' War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England and Ireland; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. While the Revolution itself was quick and relatively bloodless, pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland caused significant casualties. Although Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century, the Revolution ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; while religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were removed in 2015, those applying to the monarch remain.
  • The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 (Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus), or Revolution of 1688, is the name commonly used for the deposition of James II and VII, king of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. It was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support as many feared his exclusion would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It was also seen as a short-term issue, since James was 52, his second marriage remained childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive. When his son James Francis Edward was born on 10 June 1688, he replaced Mary as heir under the principle of male primogeniture, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. Added to this was the political instability caused by James suspending the Scottish and English Parliaments in 1685 and ruling by personal decree. It also coincided with the prosecution of the Seven Bishops, one in a series of perceived assaults on the Church of England. Their acquittal on 30 June sparked public celebrations throughout England and Scotland, which turned into widespread anti-Catholic riots and destroyed James's political authority. At the same time, Louis XIV of France was preparing to launch the Nine Years' War, targeting the Dutch Republic, of which stadholder William was the de facto ruler. Concerned at the prospect of English resources being used against him, in April William explored the option of military intervention to 'secure' his wife's succession. Initially reluctant to support such a move, the June events convinced a broad coalition of English politicians to formally invite him to do so. On 5 November, William landed in Torbay with 14,000 men; as he advanced on London, the bulk of the 30,000-strong Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making William and Mary joint monarchs of England and Ireland; a separate but similar Scottish settlement was made in June. It was the last successful invasion of the British Isles to date. While the Revolution itself was quick and relatively bloodless, pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland caused significant casualties. Although Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century, the Revolution ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828; while religious prohibitions on the monarch's choice of spouse were removed in 2015, those applying to the monarch remain.
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