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James Hutton ( ; 3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist. He contributed to what was later called uniformitarianism—a fundamental principle of geology—that explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over geologic time. Hutton's work helped to establish geology as a science, and as a result he is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Geology", though these principles were already in use by others including Buffon.

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  • James Hutton
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  • James Hutton ( ; 3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist. He contributed to what was later called uniformitarianism—a fundamental principle of geology—that explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over geologic time. Hutton's work helped to establish geology as a science, and as a result he is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Geology", though these principles were already in use by others including Buffon.
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  • James Hutton
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  • James Hutton ( ; 3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist. He contributed to what was later called uniformitarianism—a fundamental principle of geology—that explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over geologic time. Hutton's work helped to establish geology as a science, and as a result he is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Geology", though these principles were already in use by others including Buffon. Through observation and carefully reasoned geological arguments, Hutton came to believe that the Earth was perpetually being formed; he recognised that the history of Earth could be determined by understanding how processes such as erosion and sedimentation work in the present day. His theories of geology helped to establish geologic time, also called deep time, but unlike modern concepts, Hutton's "system of the habitable Earth" was a deistic mechanism to keep the world eternally suitable for humans.
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