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Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, also called Mulla Sadrā (Persian: ملا صدرا‎; also spelled Molla Sadra, Mollasadra or Sadr-ol-Mote'allehin; Arabic: صدر المتألهین‎) (c. 1571/2 – 1640), was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a and Sufi Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. According to Oliver Leaman, Mulla Sadra is arguably the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. His main work is The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect, or simply Four Journeys.

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  • Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī (Mulla Sadra)
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  • Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, also called Mulla Sadrā (Persian: ملا صدرا‎; also spelled Molla Sadra, Mollasadra or Sadr-ol-Mote'allehin; Arabic: صدر المتألهین‎) (c. 1571/2 – 1640), was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a and Sufi Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. According to Oliver Leaman, Mulla Sadra is arguably the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. His main work is The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect, or simply Four Journeys.
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  • Mulla Sadra
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  • Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, also called Mulla Sadrā (Persian: ملا صدرا‎; also spelled Molla Sadra, Mollasadra or Sadr-ol-Mote'allehin; Arabic: صدر المتألهین‎) (c. 1571/2 – 1640), was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a and Sufi Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. According to Oliver Leaman, Mulla Sadra is arguably the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. Though not its founder, he is considered the master of the Illuminationist (or, Ishraghi or Ishraqi) school of Philosophy, a seminal figure who synthesized the many tracts of the Islamic Golden Age philosophies into what he called the Transcendent Theosophy or al-hikmah al-muta’āliyah. Mulla Sadra brought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialism to existentialism" in Islamic philosophy, although his existentialism should not be too readily compared to Western existentialism. His was a question of existentialist cosmology as it pertained to God, and thus differs considerably from the individual, moral, and/or social, questions at the heart of Russian, French, German, or American Existentialism. Mulla Sadra's philosophy ambitiously synthesized Avicennism, Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi's Illuminationist philosophy, Ibn Arabi's Sufi metaphysics, and the theology of the Ash'ari school and Twelvers. His main work is The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect, or simply Four Journeys.
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