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The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.

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  • Muscogee
  • olyvia rohrich
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  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.
  •  The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ) in the , are a related group of . Their original homelands are in what now compries southern , all of Alabama, western and part of northern Florida During the 1830s , most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to l. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, , , and , all based in Oklahoma, are tribes, as are the of Alabama, the , and the . Seminole people today are part of the , , and the .
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ({ranscribed documents">Transcribed documents Archived February 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Sequoyah Research Center and the American Native Press Archives</ref> Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.
  • O povo creek é um povo nativo estadunidense do grupo muscógui (muscoggee), que primitivamente habitava nos territórios dos actuais estados da Geórgia e do Alabama, na região sudeste dos Estados Unidos da América. Organizados em clãs totémicos, mantinham uma divisão do trabalho pelo sexo: as mulheres realizavam as tarefas agrícolas e os homens caçavam. Depois de ter sustentado uma guerra com o governo dos Estados Unidos da América (1813-1814), este forçou-os a mudarem-se para Oklahoma, em meados do século XIX, onde vive actualmente. Constitui uma das Cinco tribos civilizadas.
  • Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache nennen sie sich Mvskoke oder Maskoki. Heute üblich ist die davon abgeleitete Schreibweise Muskogee, im englischsprachigen Raum auch Muscogee.Ihre Sprache Maskoki (mvskoke) gehört zur Sprachgruppe der Muskogee-Sprachen. Die Seminolen sind eng verwandt mit den Muskogee und sprechen ebenfalls die Maskoki-Sprache. Die Muskogee sind eine der fünf zivilisierten Nationen. Heute leben sie vor allem in Oklahoma, Alabama und Florida.
  • Les Creeks sont un peuple amérindien qui vivait à l'origine au sud-est des États-Unis, ils font partie des Cinq tribus civilisées. Ils se nomment eux-mêmes les Muscogee ou Muskogee. Cette dernière appellation qu'ils utilisent de nos jours, s'écrit Mvskoke selon l'orthographe traditionnelle. Les Muscogees vivent aujourd'hui principalement en Oklahoma, Alabama, Géorgie et Floride. Leur langue, le Mvskoke, fait partie de la famille des langues muskogéennes. Les Séminoles sont de proches parents des Muscogees et parlent également la langue Creek.
  • المسكوكي شعب من الأمريكيين الأصليين يقطنون في جنوب شرق الولايات المتحدة. يتكلم شعب المسكوكيين باللغة المسكوكية. يسمون بالإنجليزية باسم "[شعب] الجدول" (كريك) نسبة إلى "جدول أتشيزي" (أتشيزي كريك) وهو أحد جداول نهر أكملكي في ولاية جرجيا.
  • I Creek sono una popolazione di nativi americani originari del sud-est degli Stati Uniti anche conosciuti col loro nome originale di Muscogee (e Muskogee), che è anche il nome con cui oggi si identificano tra loro. Mvskoke è il loro nome secondo l'ortografia tradizionale. I moderni Muscogee vivono soprattutto in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, e Florida. Il loro linguaggio, Mvskoke, è membro della famiglia delle lingue muskogeane. I Creek sono una delle cosiddette Cinque Tribù Civilizzate.
  • The Muscogee people, also known as the Creek people and Creek Confederacy, are a group of related Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke (English pronunciation: /məˈskoʊdʒi/; Mvskoke [maskóːkî]) is their autonym. Originally from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and northern Florida, Muscogee people were forcibly relocated in the early 19th century to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. Their languages, Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family.
  • Кри́ки (от англ. Creek, «ручей»; не следует путать с индейцами кри), маско́ги (самоназвание; в русскоязычных текстах часто встречается неверная транскрипция «мускоги») — индейский народ, проживавший в доколониальный период на юго-востоке США (несколько общин проживают и теперь). Самоназвание в традиционном правописании на маскогском языке — Mvskoke (маскоки). В 1832 г. после трагического поражения в двух крупных войнах, понеся огромные потери, крики были под конвоем отправлены на так называемую Индейскую Территорию по дороге, известной в современной историографии как Дорога слёз.
  • Los muscogui, muskogui o creek (en idioma maskoki: mvskoke [məskoke]) son una tribu amerindia ubicada en el sureste de los EE. UU. Su lengua, llamada maskoki, pertenece al grupo lingüístico de las lenguas muskogui. En 1825 unos caciques creeks firmaron el Tratado de Indian Springs (Tratado de las Fuentes Indias), mediante el cual cedieron la mayor parte del territorio de su tribu en la Georgia norteamericana. Por eso uno de ellos, William McIntosh, fue asesinado por otros creeks como traidor en el mismo año.
  • クリーク族(-ぞく Creek)とは、アメリカ南東部に先住するインディアン部族。本来はマスコギー(マスコギ、またはムスコギー)(Muscogee/Muskogee)と自称する。彼らの伝統的なスペルでは"Mvskoke"である。 現在のマスコギーは、オクラホマ州、アラバマ州、ジョージア州、そしてフロリダ州に住んでいる。彼らの言語であるクリーク語(マスコギ語)は、マスコギ語族の中の枝言語である。セミノールはマスコギーと近い親族で、同じようにクリーク語を話す。クリークは、文明化五部族のひとつである。
  • Krikowie, Krik (ang. Creek, sami siebie nazywają Muscogee lub Muskogee) – dawna konfederacja Indian Ameryki Północnej, obejmuje 13 grup, liczących od 66,5 tys. (Muscogee Creek Nation) do zaledwie kilku osób (Tuckabachee) i zamieszkujących kilka stanów w Stanach Zjednoczonych głównie Oklahomę, Alabamę, Georgię i Florydę. Posługują się językiem krik z rodziny muskogi. Według danych U.S. Census Bureau, podczas spisu powszechnego w 2000 roku 40 223 obywateli USA zadeklarowało, że jest pochodzenia wyłącznie Creek, zaś 71 310 oświadczyło, że ma pochodzenie wyłącznie lub między innymi Creek.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. The Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, MvskokeCreek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskóɡəlɡi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, MvskokeCreek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskóɡəlɡi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Muscogee Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskóɡəlɡi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, much of Alabama, western Georgia and parts of northern Florida.
rdfs:label
  • Muscogee
  • Creek
  • Creek
  • Creek (popolo)
  • Creeks
  • Krikowie
  • Muskogee (Volk)
  • Крики
  • شعب مسكوكي
  • クリーク族
rdfs:seeAlso
has abstract
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokees in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of Seminoles were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are all closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than later colonial European-American cities. Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were already based on an (at minimum) 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  •  The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ) in the , are a related group of . Their original homelands are in what now compries southern , all of Alabama, western and part of northern Florida Like the Cherokees in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their original lands in the 1830s during the to (now ). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in and . Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the . A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 182 and these people intermarried with to become the people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of Seminoles were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are all closely related variants called and , all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the . All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The today are part of the but their is a , unrelated to any other language The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the , who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork , some of which had physical footprints larger than the . Some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than later colonial cities. Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the , , and sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under 's . In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were already based on an (at minimum) 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by 's interpretations of the and the , the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the leader , actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s , most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to l. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, , , and , all based in Oklahoma, are tribes, as are the of Alabama, the , and the . Seminole people today are part of the , , and the .
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokees in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of Seminoles were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands, and tribes, except one, are all closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than later colonial European-American cities. Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were already based on an (at minimum) 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ({ranscribed documents">Transcribed documents Archived February 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Sequoyah Research Center and the American Native Press Archives</ref> Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokees in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of Seminoles were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are all closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than later colonial European-American cities. Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were already based on an (at minimum) 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • Los muscogui, muskogui o creek (en idioma maskoki: mvskoke [məskoke]) son una tribu amerindia ubicada en el sureste de los EE. UU. Su lengua, llamada maskoki, pertenece al grupo lingüístico de las lenguas muskogui. En el siglo XVII y XVIII formaron con otras tribus (entre ellas los Seminola) la llamada Unión de los Creek. Los miembros de ésta vivieron en la mayor parte de los actuales estados de Georgia y Alabama. Los Seminola se originaron a partir de la mixogénesis de creeks, apalaches, alabamas, Timucuas, españoles, esclavos cimarrones de origen africano e incluso otros individuos de origen europeo (ingleses, escoceses, irlandeses, etc.,) por lo cual resultaron bastante diferenciados de los creek o cric. Los creeks fueron considerados entre las Cinco Tribus Civilizadas (Five Civilized Tribes en inglés), término aplicado a cinco naciones indígenas del actual sur de los Estados Unidos, incluyendo los cherokee, los Chickasaw, los choctaw, y los eeminola, considerados "civilizados" por los colonos europeos durante el periodo colonial y federal temprano porque habían adoptado muchas costumbres occidentales (incluyendo la posesión de plantaciones y esclavos) y habían tenido en general buenas relaciones con sus vecinos. En 1825 unos caciques creeks firmaron el Tratado de Indian Springs (Tratado de las Fuentes Indias), mediante el cual cedieron la mayor parte del territorio de su tribu en la Georgia norteamericana. Por eso uno de ellos, William McIntosh, fue asesinado por otros creeks como traidor en el mismo año. Con el nuevo presidente estadounidense, John Quincy Adams, el tratado fue declarado irrelevante en el Tratado de Washington en 1826. Es el único tratado con indios ya ratificado por el Senado que fue anulado. Con la Ley de Expulsión de Indios del presidente Andrew Jackson en 1830, la mayoría de los creeks fueron expulsados de su territorio en Georgia al llamado Territorio Indio (hoy Oklahoma).
  • O povo creek é um povo nativo estadunidense do grupo muscógui (muscoggee), que primitivamente habitava nos territórios dos actuais estados da Geórgia e do Alabama, na região sudeste dos Estados Unidos da América. Organizados em clãs totémicos, mantinham uma divisão do trabalho pelo sexo: as mulheres realizavam as tarefas agrícolas e os homens caçavam. Depois de ter sustentado uma guerra com o governo dos Estados Unidos da América (1813-1814), este forçou-os a mudarem-se para Oklahoma, em meados do século XIX, onde vive actualmente. Constitui uma das Cinco tribos civilizadas.
  • Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache nennen sie sich Mvskoke oder Maskoki. Heute üblich ist die davon abgeleitete Schreibweise Muskogee, im englischsprachigen Raum auch Muscogee.Ihre Sprache Maskoki (mvskoke) gehört zur Sprachgruppe der Muskogee-Sprachen. Die Seminolen sind eng verwandt mit den Muskogee und sprechen ebenfalls die Maskoki-Sprache. Die Muskogee sind eine der fünf zivilisierten Nationen. Heute leben sie vor allem in Oklahoma, Alabama und Florida.
  • Les Creeks sont un peuple amérindien qui vivait à l'origine au sud-est des États-Unis, ils font partie des Cinq tribus civilisées. Ils se nomment eux-mêmes les Muscogee ou Muskogee. Cette dernière appellation qu'ils utilisent de nos jours, s'écrit Mvskoke selon l'orthographe traditionnelle. Les Muscogees vivent aujourd'hui principalement en Oklahoma, Alabama, Géorgie et Floride. Leur langue, le Mvskoke, fait partie de la famille des langues muskogéennes. Les Séminoles sont de proches parents des Muscogees et parlent également la langue Creek.
  • المسكوكي شعب من الأمريكيين الأصليين يقطنون في جنوب شرق الولايات المتحدة. يتكلم شعب المسكوكيين باللغة المسكوكية. يسمون بالإنجليزية باسم "[شعب] الجدول" (كريك) نسبة إلى "جدول أتشيزي" (أتشيزي كريك) وهو أحد جداول نهر أكملكي في ولاية جرجيا.
  • I Creek sono una popolazione di nativi americani originari del sud-est degli Stati Uniti anche conosciuti col loro nome originale di Muscogee (e Muskogee), che è anche il nome con cui oggi si identificano tra loro. Mvskoke è il loro nome secondo l'ortografia tradizionale. I moderni Muscogee vivono soprattutto in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, e Florida. Il loro linguaggio, Mvskoke, è membro della famiglia delle lingue muskogeane. I Creek sono una delle cosiddette Cinque Tribù Civilizzate.
  • The Muscogee people, also known as the Creek people and Creek Confederacy, are a group of related Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke (English pronunciation: /məˈskoʊdʒi/; Mvskoke [maskóːkî]) is their autonym. Originally from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and northern Florida, Muscogee people were forcibly relocated in the early 19th century to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. Their languages, Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. The Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Influenced by their prophetic interpretations of the 1811 comet and earthquake, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, began to resist European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814); begun as a civil war within the Muscogee Nation, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Creeks once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Creek Nation and the forced ceding of Creek lands to the US. During the Indian Removal of the 1830s, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas.
  • Кри́ки (от англ. Creek, «ручей»; не следует путать с индейцами кри), маско́ги (самоназвание; в русскоязычных текстах часто встречается неверная транскрипция «мускоги») — индейский народ, проживавший в доколониальный период на юго-востоке США (несколько общин проживают и теперь). Самоназвание в традиционном правописании на маскогском языке — Mvskoke (маскоки). В 1832 г. после трагического поражения в двух крупных войнах, понеся огромные потери, крики были под конвоем отправлены на так называемую Индейскую Территорию по дороге, известной в современной историографии как Дорога слёз. Современные крики живут преимущественно в штате Оклахома, а также в штатах Алабама, Джорджия и Флорида. Ближайшими родственниками являются семинолы, которые сформировались в XVIII веке на основе крикских племён, вытеснивших других индейцев из Флориды. Семинолы, как и крики, помимо английского языка говорят на диалектах крикского языка /языка маскоги/. Традиционно в американской истории криков и семинолов относят к «пяти цивилизованным племенам».
  • クリーク族(-ぞく Creek)とは、アメリカ南東部に先住するインディアン部族。本来はマスコギー(マスコギ、またはムスコギー)(Muscogee/Muskogee)と自称する。彼らの伝統的なスペルでは"Mvskoke"である。 現在のマスコギーは、オクラホマ州、アラバマ州、ジョージア州、そしてフロリダ州に住んでいる。彼らの言語であるクリーク語(マスコギ語)は、マスコギ語族の中の枝言語である。セミノールはマスコギーと近い親族で、同じようにクリーク語を話す。クリークは、文明化五部族のひとつである。
  • Krikowie, Krik (ang. Creek, sami siebie nazywają Muscogee lub Muskogee) – dawna konfederacja Indian Ameryki Północnej, obejmuje 13 grup, liczących od 66,5 tys. (Muscogee Creek Nation) do zaledwie kilku osób (Tuckabachee) i zamieszkujących kilka stanów w Stanach Zjednoczonych głównie Oklahomę, Alabamę, Georgię i Florydę. Posługują się językiem krik z rodziny muskogi. Według danych U.S. Census Bureau, podczas spisu powszechnego w 2000 roku 40 223 obywateli USA zadeklarowało, że jest pochodzenia wyłącznie Creek, zaś 71 310 oświadczyło, że ma pochodzenie wyłącznie lub między innymi Creek.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokee in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged and established a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of the Seminole were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two federally recognized tribes remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are all closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Cahokia, the center of Mississippian culture in what is now Illinois, had a population larger than many later colonial European-American cities. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian culture societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Creek remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. The Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokee in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated by the federal government from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama and their descendants formed the federally recognized Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged and established a separate identity from other parts of the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. After warfare by the federal government, the great majority of the Seminole were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today and have a federally recognized tribe. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two tribes gained federal recognition in the twentieth century and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, also known as the Mississippian culture. Between AD 800 and AD 1600 they built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Cahokia, the center of Mississippian culture just east of the Mississippi River in what is now Illinois, had a population larger than many later colonial European-American cities. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian culture societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Creek remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. Formed in part originally by Creek refugees, the Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokee in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly removed by the federal government from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories in Louisiana and Texas, continued today by their descendants. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama, and their descendants formed the federally recognized Poarch Band of Creek Indians. Numerous Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821, trying to evade European encroachment, and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged and established a separate identity from other parts of the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were also fleeing armed conflict. After warfare against them in Florida by the federal government, the great majority of the Seminole were also forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the late 1830s; today they have a federally recognized tribe there. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two tribes gained federal recognition in the twentieth century and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, also known as the Mississippian culture. Between AD 800 and AD 1600 they built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Cahokia, the center of Mississippian culture just east of the Mississippi River in what is now Illinois, had a population larger than many later colonial European-American cities. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian culture societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Creek remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. Formed in part originally by Creek refugees, the Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskógəlgi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokee in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly removed by the federal government from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories in Louisiana and Texas, continued today by their descendants. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama, and their descendants formed the federally recognized Poarch Band of Creek Indians. Numerous Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821, trying to evade European encroachment, and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged as a group with a separate identity from other parts of the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were also fleeing armed conflict in their former home territories. After warfare waged against them in Florida by the federal government, the great majority of the Seminole were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the late 1830s, where their descendants are a federally recognized tribe. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two tribes gained federal recognition in the twentieth century and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, also known as the Mississippian culture. Between AD 800 and AD 1600 they built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Cahokia, the center of Mississippian culture just east of the Mississippi River in what is now Illinois, had a population larger than many later colonial European-American cities. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian culture societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Creek remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. Formed in part originally by Creek refugees, the Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, MvskokeCreek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskóɡəlɡi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokee in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly removed by the federal government from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories in Louisiana and Texas, continued today by their descendants. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama, and their descendants formed the federally recognized Poarch Band of Creek Indians. Numerous Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821, trying to evade European encroachment, and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged as a group with a separate identity from other parts of the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were also fleeing armed conflict in their former home territories. After warfare waged against them in Florida by the federal government, the great majority of the Seminole were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the late 1830s, where their descendants are a federally recognized tribe. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two tribes gained federal recognition in the twentieth century and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, also known as the Mississippian culture. Between AD 800 and AD 1600 they built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Cahokia, the center of Mississippian culture just east of the Mississippi River in what is now Illinois, had a population larger than many later colonial European-American cities. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian culture societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Creek remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. Formed in part originally by Creek refugees, the Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, MvskokeCreek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskóɡəlɡi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokee in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly removed by the federal government from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories in Louisiana and Texas, continued today by their descendants. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama, and their descendants formed the federally recognized Poarch Band of Creek Indians. Numerous Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821, trying to evade European encroachment, and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged as a group with a separate identity from other parts of the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were also fleeing armed conflict in their former home territories. After warfare waged against them in Florida by the federal government, the great majority of the Seminole were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the late 1830s, where their descendants are a federally recognized tribe. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two tribes gained federal recognition in the twentieth century and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, also known as the Mississippian culture. Between AD 800 and AD 1600 they built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Cahokia, the center of Mississippian culture just east of the Mississippi River in what is now Illinois, had a population larger than many later colonial European-American cities. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian culture societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Creek remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. Formed in part originally by Creek refugees, the Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
  • The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Muscogee Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy (pronounced [məskóɡəlɡi]) in the Muscogee language, are a group of related indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America. Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, much of Alabama, western Georgia and parts of northern Florida. Most of the Muscogee people were forcibly removed by the federal government from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy remained in Alabama, and their descendants formed the federally recognized Poarch Band of Creek Indians. Numerous Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821, trying to evade European encroachment, and these people intermarried with local tribes to form the Seminole people. By a process of ethnogenesis, they emerged as a group with a separate identity from other parts of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were also fleeing armed conflict in their former home territories. After warfare waged against them in Florida by the federal government, the great majority of the Seminole were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the late 1830s, where their descendants are a federally recognized tribe. Ancestors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida moved south into the Everglades, resisting removal. These two tribes gained federal recognition in the 20th century and remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern-day branches, bands, and tribes, except one, are closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. These languages are mostly mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, also known as the Mississippian culture. Between 800 and 1600, they built complex cities with earthwork mounds with surrounding networks of satellite towns and farmsteads. Muscogee confederated town networks were based on a 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts around plazas, ballparks, and square ceremonial dance grounds. The Muscogee Creek are associated with multi-mound centers, such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Precontact Muscogee societies shared agriculture, transcontinental trade, craft specialization, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War (Creek War, 1813–1814). Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Muscogee bands as British allies in the War of 1812 against the United States, while the Southern Muscogee remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Muscogee Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Muscogee Creek. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes. In addition, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas are federally recognized. Formed in part originally by Muscogee refugees, the Seminole people today have three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
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