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National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол, German: Nationalbolschewisten), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.

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  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол, German: Nationalbolschewisten), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол, German: Nationalbolschewisten) or Nazbol Gang, is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Hацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Hацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of nationalism (especially Russian nationalists or Russians supremacist but not all National Bolsheviks are supremacist ) and Bolshevism. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Socialists () or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a that combines elements of nazism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. It is most famous for being used in the , an Discord server filled with gay boys and lesbgirls.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks () or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Гей буа) or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of nationalism (especially Russian nationalism and eurasianism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики), NatBols or NazBols (Russian: Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term.
rdfs:label
  • National Bolshevism
has abstract
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол, German: Nationalbolschewisten), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол, German: Nationalbolschewisten) or Nazbol Gang, is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол, German: Nationalbolschewisten), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin, Yousef Crowderslayer and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as Nazbols (Russian: Нацбол), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Hацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism (especially Russian fascism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Hацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of nationalism (especially Russian nationalists or Russians supremacist but not all National Bolsheviks are supremacist ) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Socialists () or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a that combines elements of nazism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. It is most famous for being used in the , an Discord server filled with gay boys and lesbgirls. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation. They were led by Heinrich Laufenberg and Fritz Wolffheim and were based in Hamburg. Their expulsion from the KAPD was one of the conditions that Karl Radek explained was necessary if the KAPD was to be welcomed to the Third Congress of the Third International. However, the demand that they withdraw from the KAPD would probably have happened anyway. Radek had dismissed the pair as National Bolsheviks, the first recorded use of the term in a German context. Radek subsequently courted some of the radical nationalists he had met in prison to unite with the Bolsheviks in the name of National Bolshevism. He saw in a revival of National Bolshevism a way to "remove the capitalist isolation" of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, a number of German intellectuals began a dialogue which created a synthesis between radical nationalism (typically referencing Prussianism) and Bolshevism as it existed in the Soviet Union. The main figure in this was Ernst Niekisch of the Old Social Democratic Party of Germany, who edited the Widerstand journal. A National Bolshevik tendency also existed with the German Youth Movement, led by Karl Otto Paetel. Paetel had been a supporter of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), but became disillusioned with them as he did not feel they were truly committed to revolutionary activity or socialist economics. His 1930-formed movement, the Group of Social Revolutionary Nationalists, sought to forge a third way between the NSDAP and the KPD, emphasising both nationalism and socialist economics. He was especially active in a largely unsuccessful attempt to win over a section of the Hitler Youth to his cause. Although members of the NSDAP under Adolf Hitler did not take part in Niekisch's National Bolshevik project and usually presented Bolshevism in exclusively negative terms as a Jewish conspiracy, in the early 1930s there was a parallel tendency within the NSDAP which advocated similar views. This was represented by what has come to be known as Strasserism. A group led by Hermann Ehrhardt, Otto Strasser and Walther Stennes broke away in 1930 to found the Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists, commonly known as the Black Front. After the Second World War, the Socialist Reich Party was established, which combined neo-Nazi ideology with a foreign policy critical of the United States and supportive of the Soviet Union, which funded the party.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks () or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation. They were led by Heinrich Laufenberg and Fritz Wolffheim and were based in Hamburg. Their expulsion from the KAPD was one of the conditions that Karl Radek explained was necessary if the KAPD was to be welcomed to the Third Congress of the Third International. However, the demand that they withdraw from the KAPD would probably have happened anyway. Radek had dismissed the pair as National Bolsheviks, the first recorded use of the term in a German context. Radek subsequently courted some of the radical nationalists he had met in prison to unite with the Bolsheviks in the name of National Bolshevism. He saw in a revival of National Bolshevism a way to "remove the capitalist isolation" of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, a number of German intellectuals began a dialogue which created a synthesis between radical nationalism (typically referencing Prussianism) and Bolshevism as it existed in the Soviet Union. The main figure in this was Ernst Niekisch of the Old Social Democratic Party of Germany, who edited the Widerstand journal. A National Bolshevik tendency also existed with the German Youth Movement, led by Karl Otto Paetel. Paetel had been a supporter of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), but became disillusioned with them as he did not feel they were truly committed to revolutionary activity or socialist economics. His 1930-formed movement, the Group of Social Revolutionary Nationalists, sought to forge a third way between the NSDAP and the KPD, emphasising both nationalism and socialist economics. He was especially active in a largely unsuccessful attempt to win over a section of the Hitler Youth to his cause. Although members of the NSDAP under Adolf Hitler did not take part in Niekisch's National Bolshevik project and usually presented Bolshevism in exclusively negative terms as a Jewish conspiracy, in the early 1930s there was a parallel tendency within the NSDAP which advocated similar views. This was represented by what has come to be known as Strasserism. A group led by Hermann Ehrhardt, Otto Strasser and Walther Stennes broke away in 1930 to found the Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists, commonly known as the Black Front. After the Second World War, the Socialist Reich Party was established, which combined neo-Nazi ideology with a foreign policy critical of the United States and supportive of the Soviet Union, which funded the party.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks () or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation as well as the Nazbol Party of the USNR.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Гей буа) or Nazbols (Russian: Загадочные), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation as well as the Nazbol Party of the USNR.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation as well as the Nazbol Party of the USNR.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики) or Nazbols (Russian: Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of nationalism (especially Russian nationalism and eurasianism) and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation as well as the Nazbol Party of the USNR.
  • National Bolshevism (Russian: Национал-большевизм, German: Nationalbolschewismus), whose supporters are known as National Bolsheviks (Russian: Национал-большевики), NatBols or NazBols (Russian: Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of fascism and Bolshevism. Notable proponents of National Bolshevism in Germany included Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), Heinrich Laufenberg (1872–1932), and Karl Otto Paetel (1906–1975). In Russia, Nikolay Ustryalov (1890–1937) and his followers, the Smenovekhovtsy used the term. Notable modern advocates of the movement include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who led the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in the Russian Federation as well as the Nazbol Party of the USNR.
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