About: Republic of China (1912–1949)     Goto   Sponge   NotDistinct   Permalink

An Entity of Type : dbo:PopulatedPlace, within Data Space : dbpedia-live.openlinksw.com associated with source document(s)
QRcode icon
http://dbpedia-live.openlinksw.com/describe/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdbpedia.org%2Fresource%2FRepublic_of_China_%281912%25E2%2580%25931949%29

The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to its government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdica

AttributesValues
rdf:type
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
foaf:name
  • China
  • People's Republic of China
  • Republic of China
  • Republic of中華民國
rdfs:comment
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to its government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdica
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China b
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is the sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and now, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China b
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before a
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state previously based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the . It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. A
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state previously based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the province of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of Ch
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicati
  • Joumya The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before a
  • The Republic of China (ROC), also called democratic China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself E
  • The Republic of China (ROC), also called democratic China, is a sovereign state that was based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed h
  • The Republic of China (ROC), also called free China, is a sovereign state that was based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a Han Chinese sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China bef
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan (also known as Formosa). It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949 prior to its retreat to the island of Formosa. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the 1911 Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949 prior to its retreat to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law.
  • {{Infobox former country| conventional_long_name=Republic of China| native_name=中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó| common_name=China| p1=Qing dynasty| flag_p1=Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|Japanese Formosa| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg| s1=History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976)|People's Republic of China| flag_s1=Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| s2=History of Taiwan since 1945|Republic of China| flag_s2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| s3=Mongolian People's Republic|Mongolia| flag_s3=Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1945-1992).svg| image_flag=Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg| flag_type= Top: Flag(1912–1928)Bottom: Flag(1928–1949)| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state established in 1912 in Mainland China before the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan in 1949. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law.
  • Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó | p1 = Qing dynasty|1912:Qing dynasty| flag_p1 = Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|1945:Japanese Taiwan| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).1949)]]| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120pxChiba sub to flamingo!| image_map= Republic of China (orthographic projection, historical).svg| image_map_caption= Location and maximum extent of territory claimed by the Republic of China (1945) | government_type=
  • Sub to flamingo cuz china said so! | conventional_long_name=Republic of China| native_name=中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó| p1 = Qing dynasty|1912:Qing dynasty| flag_p1 = Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|1945:Japanese Taiwan| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg| s1 = China|People's Republic of China| flag_s1 = Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| s2 = Taiwan|Republic of China on Taiwan| flag_s2 = Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_flag=Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg| flag_type= Top: Flag(1912–1928)Bottom: Flag(1928–1949)| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120px
  • {{For|the history of the Republic of China since 1949 says to sub to flamingo! The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China.
  • China is ugly rude, its first dynasty was ugly.| conventional_long_nameq=Republic of China| native_name=中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó| p1 = Qing dynasty|1912:Qing dynasty| flag_p1 = Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|1945:Japanese Taiwan| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg| s1 = China|People's Republic of China| flag_s1 = Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| s2 = Taiwan|Republic of China on Taiwan| flag_s2 = Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_flag=Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg| flag_type= Top: Flag(1912–1928)Bottom: Flag(1928–1949)| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120px
  • The Republic of China on Wheels (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. The ROC had a population of 500 million people making it the world's most populous country. Its frontiers were bordered by the Soviet Union and Outer Mongolia (after 1946) to the north, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan (after 1947) to the southwest, Burma, Thailand, French Indochina to the southeast and the Japanese-occupied Korea to the east as well as the European colonies of British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau that bordered the mainland.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. The ROC had a population of 500 million people making it the world's most populous country. Its frontiers were bordered by the Soviet Union and Outer Mongolia (after 1946) to the north, Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan (after 1947) to the southwest, Burma, Thailand, French Indochina to the southeast and the Japanese-occupied Korea to the east as well as the European colonies of British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau that bordered the mainland.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China is a historical sovereign state in East Asia that was based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period can be referred to as the Mainland Period or the Republican Era.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in East Asia between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period can be referred to as the Mainland Period or the Republican Era.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, is/was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • |area_km2=|area_rank=|GDP_PPP=|GDP_PPP_year=|HDI=|HDI_year=}} The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.perial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then l
  • The Republic of China (ROC) during 1912 to 1949, commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) during 1912 to 1949, commonly known as Taiwan, was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) during 1912 to 1949, commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres (4.4 million square miles), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) from 1912 to 1949, commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres (4.4 million square miles), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) from 1912 to now, commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres (4.4 million square miles), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • China (from 1912 to 1949), officially the Republic of China (ROC), was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan and the proclamation of the People's Republic of China. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres (4.4 million square miles), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is often referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
  • China (from 1912 to 1949), officially the Republic of China (ROC), was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan and the proclamation of the People's Republic of China. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres (4.4 million square miles), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is often referred to as the Republican Era in mainland China or the Mainland Period in Taiwan.
rdfs:label
  • Republic of China (1912–1949)
rdfs:seeAlso
area (km2)
  • 9634057.0
has abstract
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to its government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is the sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and now, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state previously based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the . It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state previously based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the nationalist government's relocation to the province of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • Joumya The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), also called democratic China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), also called democratic China, is a sovereign state that was based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), also called free China, is a sovereign state that was based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a Han Chinese sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan (also known as Formosa). It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established a rival government in Canton, supported by the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CPC resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CPC established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanking to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949 prior to its retreat to the island of Formosa. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the 1911 Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949 prior to its retreat to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • {{Infobox former country| conventional_long_name=Republic of China| native_name=中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó| common_name=China| p1=Qing dynasty| flag_p1=Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|Japanese Formosa| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg| s1=History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976)|People's Republic of China| flag_s1=Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| s2=History of Taiwan since 1945|Republic of China| flag_s2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| s3=Mongolian People's Republic|Mongolia| flag_s3=Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1945-1992).svg| image_flag=Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg| flag_type= Top: Flag(1912–1928)Bottom: Flag(1928–1949)| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120px | national_anthem= * 《五族共和歌》 * "Song of Five Races Under One Union" (1912–13)《卿雲歌》 * "Song to the Auspicious Cloud" (1913–15; 1921–28)《中華雄立宇宙間》 * "China Heroically Stands in the Universe" (1915–21)《中華民國國歌》 * "National Anthem of the Republic of China" (1930–49)
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, lidet Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state established in 1912 in Mainland China before the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan in 1949. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The Republic of China is also known to many as the Republic of Taiwan. An overwhelming majority of Taiwanese believe that Taiwan is an independent sovereign state where they freely elect their own president. The people of Taiwan enjoy the same democratic freedoms, such as freedom of speech, as many other democratic states. It was the first country in Asia to permit same sex marriage. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó | p1 = Qing dynasty|1912:Qing dynasty| flag_p1 = Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|1945:Japanese Taiwan| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).1949)]]| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120pxChiba sub to flamingo!| image_map= Republic of China (orthographic projection, historical).svg| image_map_caption= Location and maximum extent of territory claimed by the Republic of China (1945) * Territory controlled by the Republic of China ‹See Tfd› * Territory claimed by the Republic of China ‹See Tfd› | capital= Beijing (then called Peking 1912–1928)Nanjing (then called Nanking 1927–1949)Chongqing (then called Chungking 1937–1946)| largest_city=Shanghai | government_type= * Beiyang government (1912–1928) * Nationalist government (1928–1949) | demonym=Chinese| official_languages=Standard Chinese| languages_type=Official script| languages=* Traditional Chinese * Manchu alphabet * Mongolian script * Tibetan alphabet * Uyghur alphabets * Formosan Latin alphabet (from 1945) | religion = see Religion in China| title_leader = President| leader1 = Sun Yat-sen (first, provisional)| year_leader1 = 1912| leader2 = Li Zongren (last in Chinese mainland, acting)| year_leader2 = 1949–1950| title_deputy = Premier| deputy1 = Tang Shaoyi (first)| year_deputy1 = 1912| deputy2 = He Yingqin (last in Chinese mainland)| year_deputy2 = 1949 | house1=National Assembly| house2=Legislative Yuan| era=20th century| event_pre=Xinhai Revolution| date_pre=10 October 1911–12 February 1912| event_start= Republic of China proclaimed|date_start=1 January| year_start=1912| event1=Beiyang government in Peking|date_event1=1912–1915, 1916–1928| event2=Joined the League of Nations|date_event2=10 January 1920| event3=Northern Expedition| date_event3=1926–1928| event4=Nationalist government in Nanjing| date_event4=1927–1949| event5=Chinese Civil War| date_event5=1927–1936,1946–1950 | event6=Second Sino-Japanese War| date_event6=7 July 1937–2 September 1945| event7=Admitted to the United Nations | date_event7=24 October 1945| event8=People's Republic of China proclaimed| date_event8=1 October 1949| event_end=Government moved to Taipei| date_end=7 December| year_end=1949| stat_year1=1912|stat_area1=11077380|stat_pop1=432,375,000| stat_year2=1920|stat_pop2=472,000,000| stat_year3=1930|stat_pop3=489,000,000| stat_year4=1946|stat_area4=9676204|stat_pop4=535,418,000| stat_year5=1949|stat_pop5=541,670,000| drives_on = right| utc_offset = +5:30 to +8:30| time_zone = Kunlun to Changpai Standard Times | currency = * Customs gold unit (1912–1949 in Chinese mainland) * Old Taiwan dollar (1946–1949 in Taiwan) | footnotes = Populations from | today = * China * Taiwan * Bhutan * India * Mongolia * Myanmar * Russia * Kyrgyzstan }} The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • Sub to flamingo cuz china said so! | conventional_long_name=Republic of China| native_name=中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó| p1 = Qing dynasty|1912:Qing dynasty| flag_p1 = Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|1945:Japanese Taiwan| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg| s1 = China|People's Republic of China| flag_s1 = Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| s2 = Taiwan|Republic of China on Taiwan| flag_s2 = Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_flag=Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg| flag_type= Top: Flag(1912–1928)Bottom: Flag(1928–1949)| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120px | national_anthem= * 《五族共和歌》 * "Song of Five Races Under One Union" (1912–13)《卿雲歌》 * "Song to the Auspicious Cloud" (1913–15; 1921–28)《中華雄立宇宙間》 * "China Heroically Stands in the Universe" (1915–21)《中華民國國歌》 * "National Anthem of the Republic of China" (1930–49)
  • {{For|the history of the Republic of China since 1949 says to sub to flamingo! The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • China is ugly rude, its first dynasty was ugly.| conventional_long_nameq=Republic of China| native_name=中華民國Chunghwa MinkuoZhōnghuá Mínguó| p1 = Qing dynasty|1912:Qing dynasty| flag_p1 = Flag of China (1889–1912).svg| p2 = Taiwan under Japanese rule|1945:Japanese Taiwan| flag_p2 = Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg| s1 = China|People's Republic of China| flag_s1 = Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg| s2 = Taiwan|Republic of China on Taiwan| flag_s2 = Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_flag=Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg| flag_type= Top: Flag(1912–1928)Bottom: Flag(1928–1949)| image_flag2=Flag of the Republic of China.svg| image_coat = Emblems of the Republic of China.svg| symbol_type = Top: Emblem(1913–1928)Bottom: Emblem(1928–1949)|coa_size = 120px | national_anthem= * 《五族共和歌》 * "Song of Five Races Under One Union" (1912–13)《卿雲歌》 * "Song to the Auspicious Cloud" (1913–15; 1921–28)《中華雄立宇宙間》 * "China Heroically Stands in the Universe" (1915–21)《中華民國國歌》 * "National Anthem of the Republic of China" (1930–49)
  • The Republic of China on Wheels (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing, and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day, and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. In 1949, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. The ROC had a population of 500 million people making it the world's most populous country. Its frontiers were bordered by the Soviet Union and Outer Mongolia (after 1946) to the north, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan (after 1947) to the southwest, Burma, Thailand, French Indochina to the southeast and the Japanese-occupied Korea to the east as well as the European colonies of British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau that bordered the mainland. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, under the Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, who served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. There years later, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. The ROC had a population of 500 million people making it the world's most populous country. Its frontiers were bordered by the Soviet Union and Outer Mongolia (after 1946) to the north, Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan (after 1947) to the southwest, Burma, Thailand, French Indochina to the southeast and the Japanese-occupied Korea to the east as well as the European colonies of British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau that bordered the mainland. It was established on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, under the Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, who served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion. In 1946, after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. There years later, nearing the end of the civil war, the CCP established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital from Nanjing to Taipei and controlling only Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 to the present day and Hainan until 1950. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China is a historical sovereign state in East Asia that was based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period can be referred to as the Mainland Period or the Republican Era. The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government, who then proclaimed himself Emperor of China from 1915 before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the national government in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion that lasted until the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945 and regained control of the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores. Shortly after, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Three years later, in 1949, nearing the end of the civil war after, the CCP established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital several times from Nanjing to Guangzhou, followed by Chengdu and lastly, Taipei though the government controls Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 onwards, Hainan until 1950 and Tibet until 1951. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in East Asia between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period can be referred to as the Mainland Period or the Republican Era. The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government, who then proclaimed himself Emperor of China from 1915 before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the national government in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion that lasted until the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945 and regained control of the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores. Shortly after, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Three years later, in 1949, nearing the end of the civil war after, the CCP established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital several times from Nanjing to Guangzhou, followed by Chengdu and lastly, Taipei though the government controls Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 onwards, Hainan until 1950 and Tibet until 1951. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in East Asia between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period can be referred to as the Mainland Period or the Republican Era. The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government, who then proclaimed himself Emperor of China from 1915 before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the national government in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion that lasted until the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945 and regained control of the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores. Shortly after, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Three years later, in 1949, nearing the end of the civil war after, the CCP established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital several times from Nanjing to Guangzhou, followed by Chongqing, then Chengdu and lastly, Taipei though the government controls Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 onwards, Hainan until 1950 and Tibet until 1951. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period. The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government, who then proclaimed himself Emperor of China from 1915 before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the national government in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion that lasted until the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945 and regained control of the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores. Shortly after, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Three years later, in 1949, nearing the end of the civil war after, the CCP established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital several times from Nanjing to Guangzhou, followed by Chongqing, then Chengdu and lastly, Taipei though the government controls Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 onwards, Hainan until 1950 and Tibet until 1951. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, is/was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period. The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government, who then proclaimed himself Emperor of China from 1915 before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the national government in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion that lasted until the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945 and regained control of the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores. Shortly after, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Three years later, in 1949, nearing the end of the civil war after, the CCP established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital several times from Nanjing to Guangzhou, followed by Chongqing, then Chengdu and lastly, Taipei though the government controls Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 onwards, Hainan until 1950 and Tibet until 1951. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
  • The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China between 1912 and 1949, prior to the relocation of its government to the island of Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometers (4.4 million mi2), it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period. The Republic was declared on 1 January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. Sun Yat-sen, the founder and its president served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government, who then proclaimed himself Emperor of China from 1915 before abdicating not long after due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era. In 1921, the KMT established the national government in Guangzhou, supported by the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The economy of Northern China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanjing and massacred Communists in Shanghai. The latter event forced the CCP into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. China experienced some industrialization during the 1930s but suffered setbacks from conflicts between the Nationalist government in Nanjing, the CCP, remaining warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building efforts yielded to fight the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 which turned into a full-scale invasion that lasted until the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945 and regained control of the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores. Shortly after, the Chinese Civil War between the KMT and CCP resumed, leading to the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replacing the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Three years later, in 1949, nearing the end of the civil war after, the CCP established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, with the nationalists moving their capital several times from Nanjing to Guangzhou, followed by Chongqing, then Chengdu and lastly, Taipei though the government controls Taiwan and other smaller islands from 1949 onwards, Hainan until 1950 and Tibet until 1951. The ROC was a founding member of the League of Nations and later the United Nations (including its Security Council seat) where it maintained until 1971. It was also a member of the Universal Postal Union and the International Olympic Committee.
Faceted Search & Find service v1.17_git39 as of Aug 10 2019


Alternative Linked Data Documents: iSPARQL | ODE     Content Formats:       RDF       ODATA       Microdata      About   
This material is Open Knowledge   W3C Semantic Web Technology [RDF Data] Valid XHTML + RDFa
OpenLink Virtuoso version 08.03.3319 as of Sep 1 2020, on Linux (x86_64-generic-linux-glibc25), Single-Server Edition (61 GB total memory)
Data on this page belongs to its respective rights holders.
Virtuoso Faceted Browser Copyright © 2009-2021 OpenLink Software