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  • The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup (Persian: کودتای ۲۸ مرداد‎‎), was the overthrow of the Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project).Mossadegh had sought to audit the documents of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), a British corporation (now part of BP) and to limit the company's control over Iranian petroleum reserves. Upon the refusal of the AIOC to co-operate with the Iranian government, the parliament (Majlis) voted to nationalize Iran's oil industry and to expel foreign corporate representatives from the country. After this vote, Britain instigated a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil to pressure Iran economically. Initially, Britain mobilized its military to seize control of the British-built Abadan oil refinery, then the world's largest, but Prime Minister Clement Attlee opted instead to tighten the economic boycott while using Iranian agents to undermine Mosaddegh's government. With a change to more conservative governments in both Britain and the United States, Winston Churchill and the Eisenhower administration decided to overthrow Iran's government, though the predecessor Truman administration had opposed a coup. Classified documents show that British intelligence officials played a pivotal role in initiating and planning the coup, and that the AIOC contributed $25,000 towards the expense of bribing officials. In August 2013, 60 years after, the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) admitted that it was in charge of both the planning and the execution of the coup, including the bribing of Iranian politicians, security and army high-ranking officials, as well as pro-coup propaganda. The CIA is quoted acknowledging the coup was carried out "under CIA direction" and "as an act of U.S. foreign policy, conceived and approved at the highest levels of government."Following the coup in 1953, a government under General Fazlollah Zahedi was formed which allowed Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran (Persian for an Iranian king), to rule more firmly as monarch. He relied heavily on United States support to hold on to power until his own overthrow in February 1979. According to the CIA's declassified documents and records, some of the most feared mobsters in Tehran were hired by the CIA to stage pro-Shah riots on 19 August. Other CIA-paid men were brought into Tehran in buses and trucks, and took over the streets of the city. Between 200 and 300 people were killed because of the conflict. Mosaddegh was arrested, tried and convicted of treason by the Shah's military court. On 21 December 1953, he was sentenced to three years in jail, then placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life. Other Mosaddegh supporters were imprisoned, and several received the death penalty. After the coup, the Shah ruled as monarch for the next 26 years while modernizing the country using oil revenues, until he was overthrown in the Iranian Revolution in 1979. (en)
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  • Government of Iran
  • House of Pahlavi
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  • 1953-08-19 (xsd:date)
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  • Successful overthrow of Prime MinisterMohammad Mosaddegh
  • * Period of discontent among Iranians, climaxing inIranian Revolution
  • * GeneralFazlollah Zahedi, appointed as prime minister of post-coup military government byMohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
  • *Pro-Americananti-Communistregime established
  • *Monarchyincreasedin power relative to elected government
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  • Coup supporters celebrate victory in Tehran (en)
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  • Government of Iran (en)
  • House of Pahlavi (en)
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  • Government-Insurgents (en)
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  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (en)
  • Dwight Eisenhower (en)
  • Winston Churchill (en)
  • Allen Dulles (en)
  • Anthony Eden (en)
  • Mohammad Mosaddegh (en)
  • Fazlollah Zahedi (en)
  • Gholam Hossein Sadighi (en)
  • Hossein Fatemi (en)
  • Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. (en)
  • Nematollah Nassiri (en)
  • Shaban Jafari (en)
  • John Sinclair (en)
  • Taghi Riahi (en)
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  • 1953 (xsd:integer)
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  • --08-19
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  • the Abadan Crisis, and the Cold War (en)
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  • Successful overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh * General Fazlollah Zahedi, appointed as prime minister of post-coup military government by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi * Monarchy increased in power relative to elected government * Pro-American anti-Communist regime established * Period of discontent among Iranians, climaxing in Iranian Revolution (en)
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  • The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup (Persian: کودتای ۲۸ مرداد‎‎), was the overthrow of the Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project).Mossadegh had sought to audit the documents of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), a British corporation (now part of BP) and to limit the company's control over Iranian petroleum reserves. (en)
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  • 1953 Iranian coup d'état (en)
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  • 1953 Iranian coup d'état (en)
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