Brutalist architecture, or Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged and gained popularity in the late 1950s, after descending from the modernist movement of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It is characterized by stark, minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette.

Property Value
dbo:abstract
  • Brutalist architecture, or Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged and gained popularity in the late 1950s, after descending from the modernist movement of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It is characterized by stark, minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. It emerged during the reconstruction projects of the post-war era, as Great Britain and countries in the Soviet Bloc began producing utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by modernist and socialist principles. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia and North America. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as libraries, courts, public housing and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism's stark, geometric designs have historically been polarising; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes buildings obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction to the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. Interiors and exteriors of Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist architectonic constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, the Soviet Bloc, and North America where it featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette.. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has historically been polarising; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction to the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. Interiors and exteriors of Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist architectonic constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc where it featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette.. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc where it featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette.. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc where it featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. It became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. The style became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls where the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other elements, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also employed. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style, as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style, as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. The style, as developed by architects such as Britain's Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and Art Brut. The style, as developed by architects such as Alison and Peter Smithson and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and Art Brut. The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. In 2006, several Bostonian architects have called for a rebranding of the style to "Heroic architecture" to distance itself form the negative connotations of the term brutalism. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularized in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn, and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles, and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America, and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts, and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. In 2006, several Bostonian architects have called for a rebranding of the style to "Heroic architecture" to distance itself form the negative connotations of the term brutalism. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularised in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. In 2006, several Bostonian architects have called for a rebranding of the style to "Heroic architecture" to distance itself form the negative connotations of the term brutalism. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularised in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles and soon spread to other regions across the world, including Asia, North America and the Soviet Bloc. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. In 2006, several Bostonian architects have called for a rebranding of the style to "Heroic architecture" to distance itself form the negative connotations of the term brutalism. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularised in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles and soon spread to other regions across the world. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. In 2006, several Bostonian architects have called for a rebranding of the style to "Heroic architecture" to distance itself form the negative connotations of the term brutalism. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber and glass, are also featured. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. Derived from the Swedish phrase nybrutalism, the term "New Brutalism" was first used by British architects Alison and Peter Smithson for their pioneering approach to design. The style was further popularised in a 1955 essay by architectural critic Reyner Banham, who also associated the movement with the French phrases béton brut ("raw concrete") and art brut ("raw art"). The style, as developed by architects such as the Smithsons and Hungarian-born Ernő Goldfinger, was partly foreshadowed by the work of other architects such as French-Swiss Le Corbusier, Estonian-American Louis Kahn and Finnish Alvar Aalto. In Great Britain, Brutalism was featured in the design of utilitarian, low-cost social housing influenced by socialist principles and soon spread to other regions across the world. Brutalist designs became most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as universities, libraries, courts and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s, with some associating the style with urban decay and totalitarianism. Brutalism has been polarising historically; specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism (often being described as "cold" or "soulless"), but have also elicited support from architects and local communities (with many brutalist buildings having become cultural icons, sometimes obtaining listed status). In recent decades, the movement has become a subject of renewed interest. In 2006, several Bostonian architects have called for a rebranding of the style to "Heroic architecture" to distance itself from the negative connotations of the term brutalism. (en)
dbo:thumbnail
dbo:wikiPageEditLink
dbo:wikiPageExternalLink
dbo:wikiPageExtracted
  • 2020-04-28 00:19:52Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-29 21:21:10Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-29 21:28:33Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 05:54:12Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 06:00:38Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 15:31:56Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 15:33:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 15:36:00Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-01 16:23:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:38:45Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:41:17Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:42:10Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:44:58Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-09 06:55:20Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-09 20:52:44Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 02:11:49Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:31:00Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:31:57Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:32:36Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:33:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:35:34Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:37:46Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:38:22Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:39:23Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:39:46Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:40:28Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:41:04Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:46:17Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:47:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:57:03Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:58:18Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:58:54Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:59:30Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:15:37Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:17:58Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:18:22Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:19:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 07:33:59Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 07:38:17Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 07:47:21Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 08:11:51Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 08:23:31Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:17:50Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:18:24Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:20:20Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:21:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 18:24:51Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 20:56:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 22:23:10Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-12 09:23:07Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-12 21:16:53Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-13 19:05:04Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:40:13Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:41:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:43:37Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:47:40Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 13:43:18Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 20:37:58Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-27 15:34:33Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-28 20:27:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-31 08:01:52Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-01 07:19:43Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-04 06:12:53Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-13 03:40:14Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-16 20:29:33Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-02 18:49:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-04 12:20:16Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-06 19:29:00Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-13 07:37:18Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-14 06:42:57Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-15 12:40:31Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-27 23:05:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-01 17:14:29Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-01 17:18:38Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-03 20:01:25Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-05 07:45:34Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-05 08:12:14Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-05 17:21:15Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-06 16:32:52Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-06 17:00:44Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-07 05:27:46Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-17 21:20:28Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-24 21:38:12Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-25 16:26:24Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-25 17:23:34Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:47:56Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:49:34Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:51:40Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:53:56Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 22:00:35Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 22:01:11Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 22:01:38Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-03 03:23:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-05 06:36:43Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-05 06:45:10Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-13 12:45:23Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:07:08Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:08:57Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:11:15Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:13:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:14:54Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:20:53Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:22:03Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:24:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:27:23Z (xsd:date)
dbo:wikiPageHistoryLink
dbo:wikiPageID
  • 424948 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageLength
  • 42610 (xsd:integer)
  • 42902 (xsd:integer)
  • 43220 (xsd:integer)
  • 43479 (xsd:integer)
  • 43508 (xsd:integer)
  • 43552 (xsd:integer)
  • 43598 (xsd:integer)
  • 43608 (xsd:integer)
  • 43609 (xsd:integer)
  • 43642 (xsd:integer)
  • 43643 (xsd:integer)
  • 43683 (xsd:integer)
  • 43684 (xsd:integer)
  • 44315 (xsd:integer)
  • 44778 (xsd:integer)
  • 44779 (xsd:integer)
  • 44780 (xsd:integer)
  • 44785 (xsd:integer)
  • 44797 (xsd:integer)
  • 44806 (xsd:integer)
  • 44814 (xsd:integer)
  • 44972 (xsd:integer)
  • 44973 (xsd:integer)
  • 44978 (xsd:integer)
  • 44982 (xsd:integer)
  • 44983 (xsd:integer)
  • 44984 (xsd:integer)
  • 44985 (xsd:integer)
  • 44986 (xsd:integer)
  • 44991 (xsd:integer)
  • 45001 (xsd:integer)
  • 45012 (xsd:integer)
  • 45050 (xsd:integer)
  • 45051 (xsd:integer)
  • 45075 (xsd:integer)
  • 45084 (xsd:integer)
  • 45119 (xsd:integer)
  • 45128 (xsd:integer)
  • 45143 (xsd:integer)
  • 45148 (xsd:integer)
  • 45165 (xsd:integer)
  • 45293 (xsd:integer)
  • 45943 (xsd:integer)
  • 45955 (xsd:integer)
  • 46060 (xsd:integer)
  • 46170 (xsd:integer)
  • 46192 (xsd:integer)
  • 46207 (xsd:integer)
  • 46223 (xsd:integer)
  • 46228 (xsd:integer)
  • 46231 (xsd:integer)
  • 46238 (xsd:integer)
  • 46241 (xsd:integer)
  • 46245 (xsd:integer)
  • 46258 (xsd:integer)
  • 46275 (xsd:integer)
  • 46614 (xsd:integer)
  • 46637 (xsd:integer)
  • 46640 (xsd:integer)
  • 46641 (xsd:integer)
  • 46701 (xsd:integer)
  • 46712 (xsd:integer)
  • 46714 (xsd:integer)
  • 46726 (xsd:integer)
  • 46854 (xsd:integer)
  • 46917 (xsd:integer)
  • 47051 (xsd:integer)
  • 47471 (xsd:integer)
  • 47475 (xsd:integer)
  • 47476 (xsd:integer)
  • 47547 (xsd:integer)
  • 47569 (xsd:integer)
  • 48251 (xsd:integer)
  • 48861 (xsd:integer)
  • 48865 (xsd:integer)
  • 48868 (xsd:integer)
  • 48871 (xsd:integer)
  • 48873 (xsd:integer)
  • 48874 (xsd:integer)
  • 48877 (xsd:integer)
  • 48878 (xsd:integer)
  • 48879 (xsd:integer)
  • 48884 (xsd:integer)
  • 48900 (xsd:integer)
  • 48919 (xsd:integer)
  • 48933 (xsd:integer)
  • 48977 (xsd:integer)
  • 49023 (xsd:integer)
  • 49025 (xsd:integer)
  • 49054 (xsd:integer)
  • 49061 (xsd:integer)
  • 49108 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageModified
  • 2020-04-28 00:19:50Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-29 21:21:07Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-29 21:28:27Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 05:54:06Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 06:00:34Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 15:31:51Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 15:33:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-04-30 15:35:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-01 16:22:58Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:38:42Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:41:11Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:42:07Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-08 20:44:56Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-09 06:55:14Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-09 20:52:39Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 02:11:47Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:30:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:31:54Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:32:32Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:32:59Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:35:32Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:37:42Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:38:18Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:39:19Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:39:43Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:40:26Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:41:00Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:46:13Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:47:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:56:59Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:58:15Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:58:51Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 03:59:25Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:15:33Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:17:56Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:18:19Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 04:18:57Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 07:33:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 07:38:12Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 07:47:15Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 08:11:43Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 08:23:25Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:17:45Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:18:19Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:20:16Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 16:21:49Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 18:24:48Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 20:55:59Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-11 22:23:03Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-12 09:23:04Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-12 21:16:47Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-13 19:05:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:40:09Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:40:57Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:43:33Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 12:47:36Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 13:43:13Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-21 20:37:53Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-27 15:34:29Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-28 20:27:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-05-31 08:01:45Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-01 07:19:39Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-04 06:12:48Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-13 03:40:12Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-06-16 20:29:28Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-02 18:49:49Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-04 12:20:12Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-06 19:28:55Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-13 07:37:14Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-14 06:42:52Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-15 12:40:27Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-07-27 23:05:02Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-01 17:14:25Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-01 17:18:34Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-03 20:01:22Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-05 07:45:30Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-05 08:12:10Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-05 17:21:12Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-06 16:32:47Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-06 17:00:36Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-07 05:27:41Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-17 21:20:24Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-24 21:38:07Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-25 16:26:20Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-25 17:23:29Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:47:51Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:49:29Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:51:35Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 21:53:52Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 22:00:32Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 22:01:08Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-08-29 22:01:33Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-03 03:22:54Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-05 06:36:37Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-05 06:45:05Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-13 12:45:20Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:07:04Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:08:52Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:11:11Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:13:48Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:14:51Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:20:48Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:21:57Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:24:01Z (xsd:date)
  • 2020-09-29 14:27:18Z (xsd:date)
dbo:wikiPageOutDegree
  • 261 (xsd:integer)
  • 262 (xsd:integer)
  • 274 (xsd:integer)
  • 275 (xsd:integer)
  • 276 (xsd:integer)
  • 277 (xsd:integer)
  • 279 (xsd:integer)
  • 282 (xsd:integer)
  • 283 (xsd:integer)
  • 284 (xsd:integer)
  • 285 (xsd:integer)
  • 286 (xsd:integer)
  • 287 (xsd:integer)
  • 288 (xsd:integer)
  • 289 (xsd:integer)
  • 290 (xsd:integer)
  • 291 (xsd:integer)
  • 292 (xsd:integer)
  • 293 (xsd:integer)
  • 294 (xsd:integer)
  • 295 (xsd:integer)
  • 298 (xsd:integer)
  • 302 (xsd:integer)
  • 303 (xsd:integer)
  • 304 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageRevisionID
  • 953585581 (xsd:integer)
  • 953943357 (xsd:integer)
  • 953944503 (xsd:integer)
  • 954010213 (xsd:integer)
  • 954010829 (xsd:integer)
  • 954079053 (xsd:integer)
  • 954079265 (xsd:integer)
  • 954079717 (xsd:integer)
  • 954282309 (xsd:integer)
  • 955620319 (xsd:integer)
  • 955620725 (xsd:integer)
  • 955620895 (xsd:integer)
  • 955621357 (xsd:integer)
  • 955691559 (xsd:integer)
  • 955791607 (xsd:integer)
  • 956013281 (xsd:integer)
  • 956024580 (xsd:integer)
  • 956024703 (xsd:integer)
  • 956024794 (xsd:integer)
  • 956024854 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025153 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025462 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025563 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025712 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025768 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025872 (xsd:integer)
  • 956025952 (xsd:integer)
  • 956026685 (xsd:integer)
  • 956026820 (xsd:integer)
  • 956028031 (xsd:integer)
  • 956028149 (xsd:integer)
  • 956028199 (xsd:integer)
  • 956028253 (xsd:integer)
  • 956029847 (xsd:integer)
  • 956030085 (xsd:integer)
  • 956030144 (xsd:integer)
  • 956030222 (xsd:integer)
  • 956051653 (xsd:integer)
  • 956052134 (xsd:integer)
  • 956053082 (xsd:integer)
  • 956056564 (xsd:integer)
  • 956057814 (xsd:integer)
  • 956119666 (xsd:integer)
  • 956119778 (xsd:integer)
  • 956120112 (xsd:integer)
  • 956120394 (xsd:integer)
  • 956141106 (xsd:integer)
  • 956164312 (xsd:integer)
  • 956175487 (xsd:integer)
  • 956247727 (xsd:integer)
  • 956347554 (xsd:integer)
  • 956507998 (xsd:integer)
  • 957985488 (xsd:integer)
  • 957985595 (xsd:integer)
  • 957985921 (xsd:integer)
  • 957986393 (xsd:integer)
  • 957993358 (xsd:integer)
  • 958063359 (xsd:integer)
  • 959191215 (xsd:integer)
  • 959444980 (xsd:integer)
  • 959925800 (xsd:integer)
  • 960125285 (xsd:integer)
  • 960663180 (xsd:integer)
  • 962278787 (xsd:integer)
  • 962932734 (xsd:integer)
  • 965674566 (xsd:integer)
  • 965953402 (xsd:integer)
  • 966377160 (xsd:integer)
  • 967437809 (xsd:integer)
  • 967602205 (xsd:integer)
  • 967807727 (xsd:integer)
  • 969884663 (xsd:integer)
  • 970660412 (xsd:integer)
  • 970660910 (xsd:integer)
  • 971033879 (xsd:integer)
  • 971298674 (xsd:integer)
  • 971301588 (xsd:integer)
  • 971361610 (xsd:integer)
  • 971515454 (xsd:integer)
  • 971518963 (xsd:integer)
  • 971610036 (xsd:integer)
  • 973552163 (xsd:integer)
  • 974763206 (xsd:integer)
  • 974888804 (xsd:integer)
  • 974896065 (xsd:integer)
  • 975690325 (xsd:integer)
  • 975690540 (xsd:integer)
  • 975690833 (xsd:integer)
  • 975691236 (xsd:integer)
  • 975692193 (xsd:integer)
  • 975692286 (xsd:integer)
  • 975692353 (xsd:integer)
  • 976470902 (xsd:integer)
  • 976817790 (xsd:integer)
  • 976818593 (xsd:integer)
  • 978190343 (xsd:integer)
  • 980963720 (xsd:integer)
  • 980963954 (xsd:integer)
  • 980964301 (xsd:integer)
  • 980964680 (xsd:integer)
  • 980964821 (xsd:integer)
  • 980965737 (xsd:integer)
  • 980965904 (xsd:integer)
  • 980966229 (xsd:integer)
  • 980966700 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageRevisionLink
dbp:wikiPageUsesTemplate
dct:subject
rdf:type
rdfs:comment
  • Brutalist architecture, or Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged and gained popularity in the late 1950s, after descending from the modernist movement of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It is characterized by stark, minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction to the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. Interiors and exteriors of Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist architectonic constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the architecture of the 1940s, much of which was influenced by a retrospective nostalgia. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. Descending from the modernist movement, Brutalism is said to be a reaction against the nostalgia of architecture in the 1940s. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials, such as concrete and brick, and visible structural elements over decorative design. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. The term descended from the Swedish coinage nybrutalism and was later popularized in a 1955 essay by British architect Reyner Banham; the French phrase béton brut ("raw concrete") is also associated with the phrase. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. the style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950's in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is typically associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other elements, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also employed. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, geometric structures, massive forbidding walls, double-height ceilings, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with elements such as exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style is commonly associated with exposed concrete, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as brick, timber, and glass, were also emphasized. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, forbidding geometric structures, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterized by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes, and a predominantly monochrome color palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and visible structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber and glass, are also featured. (en)
  • Brutalist architecture, or New Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in Great Britain, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber and glass, are also featured. (en)
rdfs:label
  • Brutalist architecture (en)
owl:sameAs
foaf:depiction
foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf
is dbo:architect of
is dbo:architecturalStyle of
is dbo:nonFictionSubject of
is dbo:significantDesign of
is dbo:wikiPageRedirects of
is dbp:architecturalStyle of
is foaf:primaryTopic of