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 A causal model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation. Sewall Wright's path analysis is the theoretical ancestor of causal modeling and causal graphs.Judea Pearl defines a causal model as an ordered triple ⟨ U , V , E ⟩ {\displaystyle \langle U,V,E\rangle } , where U is a set of exogenous variables whose values are determined by factors outside the model; V is a set of endogenous variables whose values are determined by factors within the model; and E is a set of structural equations that express the value of each endogenous variable as a function of the values of the other variables in U and V. (en)

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 What technique? (en)
 What cofounder are we talking about? (en)
 What is an instrument? (en)
 Why is this case interesting? Why is B called a cofounder? (en)
 What does it mean to "block a path"? (en)
 What is an individual in this context? (en)
 What is the exact definition of a path? (en)
 What other variable are we talking about? (en)
 What do we mean by indeterminate? What does it mean "as long as probability is the only criterion"? Criterion for what? (en)
 What does this definition have to do with instrumental variables? (en)

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 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (en)

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 Causal models are mathematical models representing causal relationships within an individual system or population. They facilitate inferences about causal relationships from statistical data. They can teach us a good deal about the epistemology of causation, and about the relationship between causation and probability. They have also been applied to topics of interest to philosophers, such as the logic of counterfactuals, decision theory, and the analysis of actual causation. (en)

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 A causal model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation. (en)

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