Edessa (; Ancient Greek: Ἔδεσσα, romanized: Édessa; Classical Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, romanized: Ōrhāy; Arabic: الرها‎, romanized: ar-Ruhā; Turkish: Şanlıurfa; Kurdish: Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca. 302 BC. It was also known as Antiochia on the Callirhoe from the 2nd century BC. It was the capital of the semi-independent kingdom of Osroene from c. 132 BC and fell under direct Roman rule in ca. 242. It became an important early centre of Syriac Christianity.

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  • Edessa (; Ancient Greek: Ἔδεσσα, romanized: Édessa; Classical Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, romanized: Ōrhāy; Arabic: الرها‎, romanized: ar-Ruhā; Turkish: Şanlıurfa; Kurdish: Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca. 302 BC. It was also known as Antiochia on the Callirhoe from the 2nd century BC. It was the capital of the semi-independent kingdom of Osroene from c. 132 BC and fell under direct Roman rule in ca. 242. It became an important early centre of Syriac Christianity. in 260, Edessa was the site of a famous battle between the Sasanian Empire and the Roman Empire in which Roman Emperor Valerian was captured and his army was routed. It fell to the Muslim conquest in 638, was briefly retaken by Byzantium in 1031 and became the center of the Crusader state of the County of Edessa from 1098–1144. It fell to the Turkic Zengid dynasty in 1144 and was eventually absorbed by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. The modern name of the city is Urfa and it is located in Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. (en)
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  • Edessa (; Ancient Greek: Ἔδεσσα, romanized: Édessa; Classical Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎, romanized: Ōrhāy; Arabic: الرها‎, romanized: ar-Ruhā; Turkish: Şanlıurfa; Kurdish: Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca. 302 BC. It was also known as Antiochia on the Callirhoe from the 2nd century BC. It was the capital of the semi-independent kingdom of Osroene from c. 132 BC and fell under direct Roman rule in ca. 242. It became an important early centre of Syriac Christianity. (en)
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  • Edessa (en)
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