The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).

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dbo:abstract
  • The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and House of Guise (Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, although a resurgence of rebellious activity following this leads some to believe the Peace of Alais in 1629 is the actual conclusion. However, the Massacre of Vassy in 1562 is agreed to begin the Wars of Religion and the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles.Between 2,000,000 and 4,000,000 people were killed as a result of war, famine and disease, and at the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed, i.e. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several minor territories around it, like the Kingdom of Navarre, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region (i.e. War with Spain, 1595-1598). Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in the deadliest European religious war behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany. Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained its religious character.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés, while Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises. Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her king sons to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-1500s, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre, parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region (i.e. War with Spain, 1595-1598) into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained its religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés, while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre, parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region (i.e. War with Spain, 1595-1598) into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained its religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés, while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained its religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés, while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained their religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés, while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained their religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés and the Navarrese faction (led by Jeanne d'Albret and her son, Henry IV of France, while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained their religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés and the Navarrese faction (led by Jeanne d'Albret and her son, Henry of Navarre, while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained their religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés and the Navarrese faction (led by Jeanne d'Albret and her son, Henry of Navarre), while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mob killed tens of thousands Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained their religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés and the Navarrese faction (led by Jeanne d'Albret and her son, Henry of Navarre), while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mobs killed tens of thousands of Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the 16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre and parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region, for instance, in the war with Spain, from 1595-1598, into northern Italy, some of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Burgundy possessions in the Low Countries.Approximately 3,000,000 people perished as a result of violence, famine and disease in what is accounted as the second deadliest European religious war (behind the Thirty Years' War, which took 8,000,000 lives in present-day Germany). Unlike all other religious wars at the time, the French wars retained their religious character without being confounded by dynastic considerations.The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, mainly the Reformed House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon) and the Roman Catholic House of Guise (a branch of the House of Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources.Protestant England and Scotland supported the Protestant side led by the Condés and the Navarrese faction (led by Jeanne d'Albret and her son, Henry of Navarre), while Hapsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supported the Roman Catholic side concentrated around the Guises.Politiques, consisting of the French kings and their advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed between the two religious groups, generally introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Catherine de' Medici initially held that stance until she manipulated one of her sons (both kings) to side with Roman Catholics by sparking the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of violence in which Catholic mobs killed tens of thousands of Protestants throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed / Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period whether from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history (surpassed only by the Thirty Years' War, which took eight million lives).Much of the conflict took place during long regency of Queen Catherine de' Medici, widow of Henry II of France, for her minor sons. It also involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy, ambitious, and fervently Roman Catholic ducal House of Guise (a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, who claimed descent from Charlemagne) and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France (i.e., commander in chief of the French armed forces) versus the less wealthy House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon), princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre.Moderates, primarily associated with the French Valois monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid an open bloodshed. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henri II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. Catherine, however, later hardened her stance and, at the time of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom.At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France. He issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots substantial rights and freedoms though this did not end Catholic hostility towards them or towards him, personally. The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Catherine's three sons: the last Valois kings: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. This changed under the reign of their Bourbon successor Henry IV. His wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government, stability, and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France's best and most beloved monarch. (en)
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  • *Edict of Nantesgrants substantial rights to Protestants in restricted areas
  • Uneasy Catholic-Protestant truce
  • * Foreign powers fail to weaken France and gain territories
  • * Catholic-Protestant hostility continues
  • *House of Bourbongains the French throne throughHenry IV
  • *Catholic Churchremains the main confession and its supremacy is upheld in France but monarchy is left severely weakened
  • * Damage to theReformed traditionasHuguenotsdecline from 10% to 8% of the French population
  • *Edict of Nantes
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  • Depiction of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre by François Dubois (en)
  • Religion in France, 1560 (en)
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  • Failure of France's enemies to weaken France and to gain territories. (en)
  • Uneasy truce. (en)
  • The Edict of Nantes granted the Huguenots substantial rights in certain areas; (en)
  • Paris and other defined territories were declared permanently Catholic. (en)
  • Uneasy Catholic-Protestant truce * House of Bourbon gains the French throne through Henry IV * Catholic Church remains the main confession and its supremacy is upheld in France but monarchy is left severely weakened * Edict of Nantes grants substantial rights to Protestants in restricted areas * Damage to the Reformed tradition as Huguenots decline from 10% to 8% of the French population * Foreign powers fail to weaken France and gain territories * Catholic-Protestant hostility continues (en)
  • Uneasy Catholic-Protestant truce * Edict of Nantes (en)
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  • The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed, i.e. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several minor territories around it, like the Kingdom of Navarre, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region (i.e. War with Spain, 1595-1598). (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-1500s, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre, parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region (i.e. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. It involved several pre-modern day principalities around the borders of today's France, like the Kingdom of Navarre, parts of Burgundy, and occasionally spilled beyond the French region (i.e. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion, or Huguenot Wars of the mid-16th century, are names for a period of civil infighting, military operations and religious war primarily fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed Protestantism, a.k.a. Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France. (en)
  • The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed / Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. (en)
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  • French Wars of Religion (en)
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