Herem (Hebrew: חֵרֶם‬, also Romanized chērem, ḥērem) is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. It is the total exclusion of a person from the Jewish community. It is a form of shunning and is similar to vitandus excommunication in the Catholic Church.

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  • Herem (Hebrew: חֵרֶם‬, also Romanized chērem, ḥērem) is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. It is the total exclusion of a person from the Jewish community. It is a form of shunning and is similar to vitandus excommunication in the Catholic Church. Cognate terms in other Semitic languages include the Arabic term ḥarām (forbidden, taboo, off-limits, or immoral), and the Ethiopic `irm (meaning accursed).Arguably the most famous case of a herem is that of Spinoza, the seventeenth century philosopher.Other famous subjects of a herem were early Russian communists Leon Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev. Sometime in 1918, while Ukraine was under German occupation, the rabbis of Odessa pronounced herem against Trotsky, Zinoviev, and other Jewish Bolshevik leaders in the synagogue. (en)
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  • Herem (Hebrew: חֵרֶם‬, also Romanized chērem, ḥērem) is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community. It is the total exclusion of a person from the Jewish community. It is a form of shunning and is similar to vitandus excommunication in the Catholic Church. (en)
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  • Herem (censure) (en)
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