The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrori

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dbo:abstract
  • The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush following the September 11 terrorist attacks. In October 2002, Congress authorized President Bush to use military force against Iraq should he choose to. The Iraq War began on 19 March 2003, when the U.S., joined by the U.K. and several coalition allies, launched a "shock and awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were quickly overwhelmed as U.S.-led forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government; Saddam was captured during Operation Red Dawn in December of that same year and executed by a military court three years later. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U.S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by Iran and al-Qaeda in Iraq. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007, a build up of 170,000 troops. The surge in troops gave greater security to Iraq's government and military, and was largely a success. The winding down of U.S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U.S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, which had been viewed by the U.S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, supposedly possessed an active weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) program, and that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Some U.S. officials falsely accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. In 2004, the 9/11 Commission said there was no evidence of an operational relationship between the Saddam Hussein regime and al-Qaeda. No stockpiles of WMDs or an active WMD program were ever found in Iraq. Bush administration officials made numerous assertions about a purported Saddam-Al-Qaeda relationship and WMDs that were based on sketchy evidence, and which intelligence officials pushed back on. The rationale of U.S. pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally. The Chilcot Report, a British inquiry into its decision to go to war, was published in 2016 and concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated. In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014. The al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launched a military offensive in northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies. The Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths (see estimates below). The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007. Subsequently, the Iraqi Civil War, which was largely considered a domino effect of the invasion, propelled at least 67,000 civilian deaths in addition to the displacement of five million people within the country. (en)
dbo:causalties
  • Awakening Councils
  • Injured/diseases/other medical*: 51,139 (47,541 U.S., 3,598 UK)
  • Coalition forces
  • Contractors
  • Killed: 1,002+
  • Killed: 1,554
  • Killed: 17,690
  • Total wounded: 117,961
  • Wounded & injured: 43,880
  • Wounded: 40,000+
  • Wounded: 500+ (2007), 828 (2008)
  • Missing/captured (U.S.): 17 (8 rescued, 9 died in captivity)
  • Iraqi security forces (post-Saddam)
  • Killed: 4,815 (4,496 U.S., 179 UK, 139 other)
  • Wounded: 32,776+ (32,252 U.S., 315 UK, 212+ other)
  • Total dead: 25,285 (+12,000 policemen killed 2003–2005)
dbo:combatant
  • Supported by:
  • Peshmerga
  • Invasion phase (2003)
dbo:commander
dbo:date
  • 2011-12-18 (xsd:date)
dbo:isPartOfMilitaryConflict
dbo:notes
  • ** Total excess deaths include all additional deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.
  • *** Violent deaths only – does not include excess deaths due to increased lawlessness, poorer healthcare, etc.
  • * "injured, diseased, or other medical": required medical air transport. UK number includes "aeromed evacuations".
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • * Establishment ofdemocratic electionsand formation of newShialed government
  • * Stronger Iranian influence in Iraq
  • *Invasionandoccupation of Iraq
  • * Overthrow ofBa'ath Partygovernment andexecution of Saddam Hussein
  • *Escalation of sectarian insurgency after U.S. withdrawalleading to the rise of theIslamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in Iraq
  • *WithdrawalofU.S. forces from Iraqin 2011
  • *Return of U.S. forces to Iraq in 2014
  • * Emergence ofsignificant insurgency, rise ofal-Qaeda in Iraq,severe sectarian violence
  • * Subsequent end of theIslamic State of Iraq and the Levantin Iraq in 2017
  • *Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
  • * Subsequent reduction in violence and depletion ofal-Qaedain Iraq
dbo:strength
  • ----
  • : 194
  • : 2,000
  • : 45,000
  • Peshmerga: 70,000
  • al-Qaeda
  • 112,000 at activation
  • 15pxIraqi Republican Guard: 70,000–75,000
  • 15pxSpecial Iraqi Republican Guard: 12,000
  • 176,000 at peak
  • 20pxFedayeen Saddam: 30,000
  • 309,000
  • : 192,000
  • Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order
  • Awakening militias
  • Coalition forces (2004–09)
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Iraqi security forces
  • Islamic State of Iraq
  • Security contractors 6,000–7,000 (estimate)
  • Sunni Insurgents
  • United States Forces – Iraq (2010–11)
  • ≈400,000 (Kurdish Border Guard: 30,000, Peshmerga 375,000)
  • ≈1,000 (2008)
  • ≈1,300 (2006)
  • ≈103,000 (2008)
  • ≈500–1,000 (2007)
  • ≈70,000 (2007)
  • 20pxIraqi Armed Forces: 375,000 (disbanded in 2003)
  • Invasion forces (2003)
  • 805,269 (military and paramilitary: 578,269, police: 227,000)
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  • The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. In 2009, official US troops were withdrawn, but American soldiers remain on the ground fighting in Iraq, hired by defence contractors and private military companies. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrori (en)
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  • Iraq War (en)
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  • Iraq War (en)
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