The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was the final in a series of Samaritan and Jewish revolts. The revolt was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. Many historians view this war as marking the end of antiquity.Some historians believe the war reduced and weakened the Christian population not just in Jerusalem but across the near east, allowing the success of the following Arab invasion.

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dbo:abstract
  • The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was the final in a series of Samaritan and Jewish revolts. The revolt was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. Many historians view this war as marking the end of antiquity.Some historians believe the war reduced and weakened the Christian population not just in Jerusalem but across the near east, allowing the success of the following Arab invasion. However, over the past thirty years the archaeological evidence has not supported the ancient manuscripts which record the devastation of the Christian community in Jerusalem. (en)
  • The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 and is considered the last serious Jewish attempt for gaining autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times. Many historians view this war as marking the end of antiquity. According to a recent theory, the revolt and the general Byzantine-Persian War took place during the Late Antique Little Ice Age, which marked the decline of the classic empires, demographic and economic collapse across the Near East and rise of the opportunistic forces, such as Muslim Arabs and Turks.Following the Battle of Antioch in 613, Shahrbaraz led his forces through Palaestina Secunda and into Palaestina Prima provinces. In 614, Shahrbaraz conquered Caesarea Maritima, the administrative capital of the Palaestina Prima province. The Persian army reinforced by Jewish forces led by Nehemiah ben Hushiel and Benjamin of Tiberias would shortly capture Jerusalem without resistance. After only a few months a Christian revolt occurred. Nehemiah ben Hushiel and his council of sixteen righteous were killed along with many other Jews, some throwing themselves off the city walls. Christians were able to briefly retake the city before the walls were breached by Shahrbaraz’s forces who lay siege to the city. According to the Armenian bishop and historian Sebeos the siege resulted in a total Christian death toll of 17,000, Christian sources later exaggerated the extent of the massacre, claiming a death toll as high as 90,000. In addition 35,000 or 37,000 people including the patriarch Zacharias are said to have been deported to Mesopotamia. The city is said to have been burnt down. However, neither wide spread burning nor destruction of churches have been found in the archaeological record.Bands of Jews from Jerusalem, Tiberias, Galilee, Damascus, and even from Cyprus, united and undertook an incursion against Tyre, having been invited by the 4,000 Jewish inhabitants of that city to surprise and massacre the Christians on Easter night. The Jewish army is said to have consisted of 20,000 men. The expedition, however, miscarried, as the Christians of Tyre learned of the impending danger, and seized the 4,000 Tyrian Jews as hostages. The Jewish invaders destroyed the churches around Tyre, an act which the Christians avenged by killing two thousand of their Jewish prisoners. The besiegers, to save the remaining prisoners, withdrew. The Jews had hoped that Khosrau II would give them all of the Land of Israel in exchange for their support. By 617 CE the Persians had reversed their policy and sided with the Christians over the Jews, probably because of pressure from Mesopotamian Christians in Persia itself.By 622 CE, the Roman Emperor Heraclius had assembled an army to retake the territory lost to the Sasanian Empire. In 628, following the deposition of Khosrau II, Kavadh II made peace with Heraclius, but Kavadh II would only have a brief reign. It is said that Benjamin even accompanied Heraclius on his voyage to Jerusalem and Benjamin was persuaded to convert, Benjamin obtained a general pardon for himself and the Jews. On 21 March 630, Emperor Heraclius marched in triumph into Jerusalem with the True Cross. A general massacre of the Jewish population ensued. The massacre devastated the Jewish communities of the Galilee and Jerusalem. Only those Jews who could flee to the mountains or Egypt are said to have been spared.Some historians believe the war reduced and weakened the Christian population not just in Jerusalem but across the Near East, allowing the success of the following Arab invasion. However, over the past thirty years the archaeological evidence has not supported the ancient manuscripts which record the devastation of the Christian community in Jerusalem. (en)
  • The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 and is considered the last serious Jewish attempt for gaining autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times. According to a recent theory, the revolt and the general Byzantine-Persian War took place during the Late Antique Little Ice Age, which marked the decline of the classic empires, demographic and economic collapse across the Near East and rise of opportunistic forces, such as Muslim Arabs and Turks.Following the Battle of Antioch in 613, Shahrbaraz led his forces through Palaestina Secunda and into Palaestina Prima provinces. In 614, Shahrbaraz conquered Caesarea Maritima, the administrative capital of the Palaestina Prima province. The Persian army reinforced by Jewish forces led by Nehemiah ben Hushiel and Benjamin of Tiberias would shortly capture Jerusalem without resistance. After only a few months a Christian revolt occurred. Nehemiah ben Hushiel and his council of sixteen righteous were killed along with many other Jews, some throwing themselves off the city walls. Christians were able to briefly retake the city before the walls were breached by Shahrbaraz’s forces who lay siege to the city. According to the Armenian bishop and historian Sebeos the siege resulted in a total Christian death toll of 17,000, Christian sources later exaggerated the extent of the massacre, claiming a death toll as high as 90,000. In addition 35,000 or 37,000 people including the patriarch Zacharias are said to have been deported to Mesopotamia. The city is said to have been burnt down. However, neither wide spread burning nor destruction of churches have been found in the archaeological record.Bands of Jews from Jerusalem, Tiberias, Galilee, Damascus, and even from Cyprus, united and undertook an incursion against Tyre, having been invited by the 4,000 Jewish inhabitants of that city to surprise and massacre the Christians on Easter night. The Jewish army is said to have consisted of 20,000 men. The expedition, however, miscarried, as the Christians of Tyre learned of the impending danger, and seized the 4,000 Tyrian Jews as hostages. The Jewish invaders destroyed the churches around Tyre, an act which the Christians avenged by killing two thousand of their Jewish prisoners. The besiegers, to save the remaining prisoners, withdrew. The Jews had hoped that Khosrau II would give them all of the Land of Israel in exchange for their support. By 617 CE the Persians had reversed their policy and sided with the Christians over the Jews, probably because of pressure from Mesopotamian Christians in Persia itself.By 622 CE, the Roman Emperor Heraclius had assembled an army to retake the territory lost to the Sasanian Empire. In 628, following the deposition of Khosrau II, Kavadh II made peace with Heraclius, but Kavadh II would only have a brief reign. It is said that Benjamin even accompanied Heraclius on his voyage to Jerusalem and Benjamin was persuaded to convert, Benjamin obtained a general pardon for himself and the Jews. On 21 March 630, Emperor Heraclius marched in triumph into Jerusalem with the True Cross. A general massacre of the Jewish population ensued. The massacre devastated the Jewish communities of the Galilee and Jerusalem. Only those Jews who could flee to the mountains or Egypt are said to have been spared.Some historians believe the war reduced and weakened the Christian population not just in Jerusalem but across the Near East, allowing the success of the following Arab invasion. However, over the past thirty years the archaeological evidence has not supported the ancient manuscripts which record the devastation of the Christian community in Jerusalem. (en)
dbo:causalties
  • Tens of thousands
dbo:combatant
  • Byzantine Empire
  • *Jewishallies
  • Sasanian Empire,
dbo:commander
dbo:isPartOfMilitaryConflict
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • *Expulsion of Jews from the region
  • Jewish surrender and expulsion
  • *Byzantine defeat and temporal rule of Persians and Jews over parts ofDiocese of the East
  • *Brief restoration of Byzantine (Eastern Roman) rule 630–640
dbo:strength
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Sasanian Empire
  • *20,000 or 26,000 Jewish rebels
  • *Byzantine Army
  • *Christian rebels
  • *Sassanian army
dbo:territory
dbo:thumbnail
dbo:wikiPageEditLink
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  • 2017-10-01 19:47:48Z (xsd:date)
  • 2018-05-02 01:09:04Z (xsd:date)
  • 2019-02-24 02:56:59Z (xsd:date)
dbo:wikiPageHistoryLink
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  • 6861446 (xsd:integer)
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  • 41738 (xsd:integer)
  • 41885 (xsd:integer)
  • 44478 (xsd:integer)
dbo:wikiPageModified
  • 2017-09-04 01:10:39Z (xsd:date)
  • 2018-04-21 11:07:37Z (xsd:date)
  • 2019-02-24 02:40:05Z (xsd:date)
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  • 118 (xsd:integer)
  • 123 (xsd:integer)
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  • 798821999 (xsd:integer)
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  • 884801620 (xsd:integer)
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dbp:casualties
  • Tens of thousands (en)
dbp:combatant
dbp:commander
dbp:conflict
  • Jewish revolt against Heraclius (en)
dbp:date
  • 614 (xsd:integer)
  • ParseResult(614,None,None)
dbp:imageSize
  • 300 (xsd:integer)
  • ParseResult(300,None,None)
dbp:partof
  • the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 (en)
dbp:place
  • Palaestina Prima of the Diocese of the East (en)
dbp:result
  • Jewish surrender and expulsion *Byzantine defeat and temporal rule of Persians and Jews over parts of Diocese of the East *Expulsion of Jews from the region *Brief restoration of Byzantine rule 630–640 (en)
dbp:strength
  • Sasanian Empire *Sassanian army *20,000 or 26,000 Jewish rebels (en)
  • Byzantine Empire *Christian rebels *Byzantine Army (en)
dbp:territory
  • Palaestina Prima and Secunda temporarily annexed to the Persian Empire. (en)
dbp:wikiPageUsesTemplate
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  • The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was the final in a series of Samaritan and Jewish revolts. The revolt was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. Many historians view this war as marking the end of antiquity.Some historians believe the war reduced and weakened the Christian population not just in Jerusalem but across the near east, allowing the success of the following Arab invasion. (en)
  • The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 and is considered the last serious Jewish attempt for gaining autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times. Many historians view this war as marking the end of antiquity. (en)
  • The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 and is considered the last serious Jewish attempt for gaining autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times. (en)
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  • Jewish revolt against Heraclius (en)
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  • Jewish revolt against Heraclius (en)
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