The list of parties to the Biological Weapons Convention encompasses the states who have signed and ratified or acceded to the international agreement outlawing biological weapons. On 10 April 1972, the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), also known as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was opened for signature. The Netherlands became the first state to deposit their signature of the treaty that same day. The treaty closed for signature upon coming into force on 26 March 1975 with the deposit of ratification by 22 states. Since then, states that did not sign the treaty can only accede to it.

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  • The list of parties to the Biological Weapons Convention encompasses the states who have signed and ratified or acceded to the international agreement outlawing biological weapons. On 10 April 1972, the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), also known as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was opened for signature. The Netherlands became the first state to deposit their signature of the treaty that same day. The treaty closed for signature upon coming into force on 26 March 1975 with the deposit of ratification by 22 states. Since then, states that did not sign the treaty can only accede to it. A total of 197 states may become members of the Biological Weapons Convention, including all 193 United Nations member states, the Cook Islands, the Holy See, the State of Palestine and Niue. As of August 2019, 183 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most recently Tanzania in August 2019. As well, the Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 14 UN member states, deposited their instruments of ratification of the BWC with the United States government prior to the US's decision to switch their recognition of the sole legitimate government of China from the Republic of China (ROC) to the People's Republic of China (PRC). A further five states have signed but not ratified the treaty. Several countries made reservations when ratifying the agreement declaring that it did not imply their complete satisfaction that the Treaty allows the stockpiling of biological agents and toxins for "prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes", nor should it imply recognition of other countries they do not recognise. (en)
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  • The list of parties to the Biological Weapons Convention encompasses the states who have signed and ratified or acceded to the international agreement outlawing biological weapons. On 10 April 1972, the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), also known as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was opened for signature. The Netherlands became the first state to deposit their signature of the treaty that same day. The treaty closed for signature upon coming into force on 26 March 1975 with the deposit of ratification by 22 states. Since then, states that did not sign the treaty can only accede to it. (en)
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  • List of parties to the Biological Weapons Convention (en)
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