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  • Mi’kmaq militias were made up of Mi’kmaq warriors (Smáknisk) who worked independently as well as in coordination with the Wabanaki Confederacy, French and Acadian forces throughout the colonial period to defend their homeland Mi’kma’ki against the English (the British after 1707). The Mi'kmaq militias deployed effective resistance for over 75 years before the Halifax Treaties were signed (1760–61). In the nineteenth century, the Mi'kmaq "boasted" that, in their contest with the British, the Mi'kmaq "killed more men than they lost". In 1753, Charles Morris stated that the Mi'kmaq have the advantage of "no settlement or place of abode, but wandering from place to place in unknown and, therefore, inaccessible woods, is so great that it has hitherto rendered all attempts to surprise them ineffectual". Leadership on both sides of the conflict employed standard colonial warfare, which included scalping non-combatants (e.g., families). After some engagements against the British during the American Revolution, the militias were dormant throughout the nineteenth century, while the Mi'kmaq people used diplomatic efforts to have the local authorities honour the treaties. After confederation, Mi’kmaq warriors eventually joined Canada's war efforts in World War I and World War II. The most well-known colonial leaders of these militias were Chief (sakamaw) Jean-Baptiste Cope and Chief Étienne Bâtard. (en)
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  • 2018-05-04 00:29:51Z (xsd:date)
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  • Mi’kmaq militias were made up of Mi’kmaq warriors (Smáknisk) who worked independently as well as in coordination with the Wabanaki Confederacy, French and Acadian forces throughout the colonial period to defend their homeland Mi’kma’ki against the English (the British after 1707). The Mi'kmaq militias deployed effective resistance for over 75 years before the Halifax Treaties were signed (1760–61). (en)
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  • Military history of the Mi'kmaq people (en)
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