Operation Storm (Serbo-Croatian: Operacija Oluja, Операција Олуја) was the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence and a major factor in the outcome of the Bosnian War.

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dbo:abstract
  • Operation Storm (Serbo-Croatian: Operacija Oluja, Операција Олуја) was the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence and a major factor in the outcome of the Bosnian War. It was a decisive victory for the Croatian Army (HV), which attacked across a 630-kilometre (390 mi) front against the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK), and a strategic victory for the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH).The HV was supported by the Croatian special police advancing from the Velebit Mountain, and the ARBiH located in the Bihać pocket, in the Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina's (ARSK) rear. The battle, launched to restore Croatian control of 10,400 square kilometres (4,000 square miles) of territory, representing 18.4% of the territory it claimed, and Bosnian control of Western Bosnia, was the largest European land battle since the Second World War. Operation Storm commenced at dawn on 4 August 1995 and was declared complete on the evening of 7 August, despite significant mopping-up operations against pockets of resistance lasting until 14 August.Operation Storm was a strategic victory in the Bosnian War, effectively ending the siege of Bihać and placing the HV, Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the ARBiH in a position to change the military balance of power in Bosnia and Herzegovina through the subsequent Operation Mistral 2. The operation built on HV and HVO advances made during Operation Summer '95, when strategic positions allowing the rapid capture of the RSK capital Knin were gained, and on the continued arming and training of the HV since the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence, when the RSK was created during the Serb Log revolution and Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) intervention. The operation itself followed an unsuccessful United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission and diplomatic efforts to settle the conflict.The HV's and ARBiH's strategic success was a result of a series of improvements to the armies themselves, and crucial breakthroughs made in the ARSK positions that were subsequently exploited by the HV and the ARBiH. The attack was not immediately successful at all points, but seizing key positions led to the collapse of the ARSK command structure and overall defensive capability. The HV capture of Bosansko Grahovo just before Operation Storm, and the special police's advance to Gračac, made it nearly impossible to defend Knin. In Lika, two guard brigades quickly cut the ARSK-held area (which lacked tactical depth and mobile reserve forces), isolating pockets of resistance, positioning a mobile force for a decisive northward thrust into the Karlovac Corps area of responsibility (AOR), and pushing ARSK towards Banovina. The defeat of the ARSK at Glina and Petrinja, after a tough defence, defeated the ARSK Banija Corps as well, as its reserve was pinned down by the ARBiH. The RSK relied on the Republika Srpska and Yugoslav militaries as its strategic reserve, but they did not intervene in the battle.The HV and the special police suffered 174–211 killed or missing, while the ARSK had 560 soldiers killed. Four UN peacekeepers were also killed. The HV captured 4,000 prisoners of war. The number of Serb civilian deaths is disputed—Croatia claims that 214 were killed, while Serbian sources cite 1,192 civilians killed or missing. During and after the offensive, 150,000–200,000 Serbs—or nearly the entire Serb population of the area formerly held by the ARSK—fled and a variety of crimes were committed against the remaining civilians there. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) later tried three Croatian generals charged with war crimes and partaking in a joint criminal enterprise designed to force the Serb population out of Croatia, although all three were ultimately acquitted and the tribunal refuted charges of a criminal enterprise.In 2010, Serbia sued Croatia before the International Court of Justice (ICJ), claiming that the offensive constituted a genocide. In 2015, the court ruled that it was not genocidal, and it affirmed that the Serb population fled as a direct result of the offensive, although ruling that Croatia did not have the specific intent to displace the country's Serb minority, nor was it found that ethnic cleansing or civilian targeting took place. However, it was found that crimes against civilians had been committed by Croatian forces. As of November 2012, the Croatian judiciary has convicted 2,380 persons for various crimes committed during Operation Storm. (en)
dbo:causalties
  • 1,100–1,430 wounded
  • 174–211 killed
  • 3 captured
dbo:combatant
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • AP Western Bosnia
  • Republic of Serbian Krajina
dbo:commander
dbo:date
  • 1995-08-07 (xsd:date)
dbo:isPartOfMilitaryConflict
dbo:place
dbo:result
  • *AP Western Bosniaabolished
  • *End of thesiege of Bihać
  • DecisiveCroatianvictory
  • StrategicBosnianvictory:
  • *Most ofRepublic of Serbian Krajinaterritory captured by Croatia
  • *Boost to diplomacy that led to theErdut Agreement, ending the war
  • *End of large-scale combat in theCroatian War of Independence
  • *Exodus of Serb civilians
dbo:strength
  • AP Western Bosnia: 4,000–5,000 soldiers
  • ARBiH: 3,000 soldiers
  • ARSK: 27,000–34,000 soldiers
  • Croatia: 130,000 soldiers
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  • 2018-05-04 20:17:21Z (xsd:date)
  • 2019-02-25 17:15:33Z (xsd:date)
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  • 2019-02-25 17:07:47Z (xsd:date)
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  • Forces: (en)
  • Map of Operation Storm (en)
dbp:casualties
  • 3 (xsd:integer)
  • 4 (xsd:integer)
  • 174 (xsd:integer)
  • 214 (xsd:integer)
  • 560 (xsd:integer)
  • 1100 (xsd:integer)
  • 4000 (xsd:integer)
  • 21000 (xsd:integer)
  • 22000 (xsd:integer)
  • 150000 (xsd:integer)
  • Other: (en)
  • Refugees: (en)
  • Serb civilian deaths: (en)
  • Croatian civilian deaths: 42 (en)
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  • Croat civilian deaths: 42 (en)
dbp:combatant
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (en)
  • Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (en)
  • AP Western Bosnia (en)
  • Republic of Serbian Krajina (en)
dbp:commander
  • Ratko Mladić (en)
  • Ante Gotovina (en)
  • Atif Dudaković (en)
  • Fikret Abdić (en)
  • Ivan Basarac (en)
  • Luka Džanko (en)
  • Mile Mrkšić (en)
  • Mile Novaković (en)
  • Miljenko Crnjac (en)
  • Milorad Stupar (en)
  • Mirko Norac (en)
  • Petar Stipetić (en)
  • Slobodan Kovačević (en)
  • Slobodan Tarbuk (en)
  • Stevan Ševo (en)
  • Zvonimir Červenko (en)
  • Čedo Bulat (en)
dbp:conflict
  • Operation Storm (en)
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  • --08-07
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  • Cro-occup-lines-1Aug95.svg (en)
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  • and the Bosnian War (en)
  • the Croatian War of Independence (en)
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dbp:result
  • Decisive Croatian victory *End of large-scale combat in the Croatian War of Independence *Most of Republic of Serbian Krajina territory captured by Croatia *Exodus of Serb civilians *Boost to diplomacy that led to the Erdut Agreement, ending the war Strategic Bosnian victory: *AP Western Bosnia abolished *End of the siege of Bihać (en)
dbp:strength
  • AP Western Bosnia: 4,000–5,000 soldiers (en)
  • ARBiH: 3,000 soldiers (en)
  • ARSK: 27,000–34,000 soldiers (en)
  • Croatia: 130,000 soldiers (en)
dbp:territory
  • Croatia regained of territory. (en)
dbp:units
  • Army of Republika Srpska (en)
  • Croatian Army (en)
  • Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (en)
  • Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina (en)
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  • Operation Storm (Serbo-Croatian: Operacija Oluja, Операција Олуја) was the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence and a major factor in the outcome of the Bosnian War. (en)
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  • Operation Storm (en)
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  • Operation Storm (en)
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