Postmodernism is a range of conceptual frameworks and ideologies that are defined in opposition to those commonly associated with ideologies of modernity and modernist notions of knowledge and science, such as formalism, materialism, metaphysics, positivism, realism, reductionism, and structuralism. Postmodernism is not a philosophical movement, but rather a number of philosophical and critical methods.

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  • ポストモダン(英: Postmodern)とは、「モダン(近代)の次」という意味であり、モダニズム(近代主義)がその成立の条件を失った(と思われた)時代のこと。ポストモダニズム(Postmodernism)とは、そのような時代を背景として成立した、モダニズムを批判する文化上の運動のこと。主に哲学・思想・文学・建築の分野で用いられる語。
  • Postmodernisme is een stroming in de filosofie en de kunst die gezien wordt als een reactie op en een radicale afscheuring van het modernisme. Echter, postmodernisme heeft ook veel elementen van het existentialisme van de jaren '40 en '50 meegenomen in zijn ontwikkeling.
  • Postmodernizm – prąd myślowy odwołujący się do poczucia końca historii i wielkich narracji.
  • Postmodernisme er en betegnelse på ulike retninger innenfor humaniora, samfunnsvitenskap og kunst, fra annen halvdel av 1900-tallet til første del av 2000-tallet. Selve begrepet «postmodernisme» er omstridt, i likhet med de ulike tankeretningene og metodologiene som kan inkluderes i begrepet. Enkelte later til å betrakte «postmodernismen» som enda en blant mylderet av «ismer» innenfor modernismen; andre mener det dreier seg om en helt ny retning i idéhistorien.
  • Постмодерни́зм — термин, обозначающий структурно сходные явления в мировой общественной жизни и культуре второй половины XX века: он употребляется как для характеристики постнеклассического типа философствования, так и для комплекса стилей в художественном искусстве. Постмодерн — состояние современной культуры, включающее в себя предпостнеклассическую философскую парадигму, до-постмодернистское искусство, а также массовую культуру этой эпохи.
  • Постмодерні́зм — світоглядно-мистецький напрям, що в останні десятиліття 20 століття приходить на зміну модернізму. Цей напрям — продукт постіндустріальної епохи, епохи розпаду цілісного погляду на світ, руйнування систем — світоглядно-філософських, економічних, політичних.
  • El terme postmodernitat designa genèricament un ampli nombre de moviments artístics, culturals i filosòfics del segle XX definits en divers grau i manera per la seva oposició a (o superació al·legada de) la modernitat (concepte, aquest darrer, similar, però no idèntic, al d'Edat Contemporània). En aquesta accepció concreta de 'moviment postmodern' o 'ideologia postmoderna', a voltes la postmodernitat es designa també com a "postmodernisme", però aquest terme, com a designació d'aquest concepte, està mal format i és confusionari. També s'anomena postmodernitat un determinat període històric que es postula com a posterior a la modernitat; vegeu l'article Postmodernitat (període). Els diferents corrents del moviment postmodern van aparèixer al llarg del terç central del segle XX. Històricament, ideològicament i metodològicament diversos, comparteixen, però, una semblança de família centrada en la idea que la renovació radical de les formes tradicionals en l'art, la cultura, el pensament i la vida social impulsada pel projecte de la modernitat havien fracassat en l'intent d'assolir l'emancipació de la humanitat, i que és impossible o inassolible un projecte semblant en les condicions actuals. Enfront del compromís rigorós amb la innovació, el progrés i la crítica, que caracteritzà les avantguardes artístiques, intel·lectuals i socials, actitud que considera una forma refinada de teologia autoritària, la ideologia postmoderna defensa la hibridació, la cultura popular, el descentrament de l'autoritat intel·lectual i científica i la desconfiança davant el que defineix com a grans relats.
  • Postmoderna (také postmodernismus) je evropský myšlenkový směr konce 20. století. Tento pojem vznikl na základě krátké, ale vlivné knihy Jeana-Françoise Lyotarda O postmodernismu (La condition postmoderne, 1979, č. 1993). Základním prvkem postmoderny je pluralita názorů a jejich zrovnoprávnění, došlo nejen ke zpochybnění optimistického pohledu na historický vývoj západní civilizace, ale i pohledu na dějiny jako na proces postupného překonávání dřívějších fází. S tím je samozřejmě spojen fakt, že se tímto termínem označují často i protichůdné proudy a tím je ztížen jejich popis. Důraz na pluralitu a synkretismus je vedle postmoderny typický i pro hnutí New Age, jež vykazuje mnoho postmoderních prvků. Od toho také návazný směr, označován jako novomilenismus. Pro postmodernu je také charakteristický všeobecný eklekticismus, vycházejí z něj současné směry jako hypermoderna nebo označení ultramoderní. Diskutuje se také o pojmu postpostmoderna.
  • Postmodernism is a range of conceptual frameworks and ideologies that are defined in opposition to those commonly associated with ideologies of modernity and modernist notions of knowledge and science, such as formalism, materialism, metaphysics, positivism, realism, reductionism, and structuralism. Postmodernism is not a philosophical movement, but rather a number of philosophical and critical methods. In other words, postmodernism is not a method of doing philosophy, but rather a way of approaching traditional ideas and practices in non-traditional ways that deviate from pre-established superstructural modes. This has caused difficulties in defining what postmodernism means and it therefore remains a controversial concept. Postmodernism postulates that many, if not all, apparent realities are only social constructs and are therefore subject to change. It claims that there is no absolute truth and that the way people perceive the world is subjective and emphasises the role of language, power relations, and motivations in the formation of ideas and beliefs. In particular it attacks the use of sharp binary classifications such as male versus female, straight versus gay, white versus black, and imperial versus colonial; it holds realities to be plural and relative, and to be dependent on who the interested parties are and the nature of these interests. Postmodernist approaches therefore often consider the ways in which social dynamics, such as power and hierarchy, affect human conceptualizations of the world to have important effects on the way knowledge is constructed and used. In contrast to modernism, postmodernist thought often emphasizes constructivism, idealism, pluralism, relativism, and scepticism in its approaches to knowledge and understanding. Postmodernism is generally considered to have been conceived during the late nineteenth century. Postmodernism gained significant popularity in the 1950s and dominated literature and art by the 1960s. Postmodernism has influenced many disciplines, including religion, literary criticism, sociology, linguistics, architecture, history, anthropology, visual arts, and music.
  • El término posmodernidad o postmodernidad designa generalmente a un amplio número de movimientos artísticos, culturales, literarios y filosóficos del siglo XX, definidos en diverso grado y manera por su oposición o superación de las tendencias de la Edad Moderna. En sociología en cambio, los términos posmoderno y posmodernización se refieren al proceso cultural observado en muchos países en las últimas dos décadas, identificado a principios de los '70, esta otra acepción de la palabra se explica bajo el término posmaterialismo. Las diferentes corrientes del movimiento postmoderno aparecieron durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Aunque se aplica a corrientes muy diversas, todas ellas comparten la idea de que el proyecto modernista fracasó en su intento de renovación radical de las formas tradicionales del arte y la cultura, el pensamiento y la vida social. Uno de los mayores problemas a la hora de tratar este tema resulta justamente en llegar a un concepto o definición precisa de lo que es la postmodernidad. La dificultad en esta tarea resulta de diversos factores, entre los cuales los principales inconvenientes son la actualidad, y por lo tanto la escasez e imprecisión de los datos a analizar y la falta de un marco teórico válido para poder hacerlo extensivo a todos los hechos que se van dando a lo largo de este complejo proceso que se llama posmodernismo. Pero el principal obstáculo proviene justamente del mismo proceso que se quiere definir, porque es eso precisamente lo que falta en esta era: un sistema, una totalidad, un orden, una unidad, en definitiva coherencia. Se suele dividir a la postmodernidad en tres sectores, dependiendo de su área de influencia. Como un periodo histórico, como una actitud filosófica, o como un movimiento artístico. Histórica, ideológica y metodológicamente diversos, comparten sin embargo un parecido de familia centrado en la idea de que la renovación radical de las formas tradicionales en el arte, la cultura, el pensamiento y la vida social impulsada por el proyecto modernista, fracasó en su intento de lograr la emancipación de la humanidad, y de que un proyecto semejante es imposible o inalcanzable en las condiciones actuales. Frente al compromiso riguroso con la innovación, el progreso y la crítica de las vanguardias artísticas, intelectuales y sociales, al que considera una forma refinada de teología autoritaria, el posmodernismo defiende la hibridación, la cultura popular, el descentramiento de la autoridad intelectual y científica y la desconfianza ante los grandes relatos. Las principales características del pensamiento posmoderno son: Antidualista: Los posmodernos aseveran que la filosofía occidental creó dualismos y así excluyó del pensamiento ciertas perspectivas. Por otro lado, el postmodernismo valora y promueve el pluralismo y la diversidad (más que negro contra blanco, occidente contra oriente, hombre contra mujer). Asegura buscar los intereses de "los otros" (los marginados y oprimidos por las ideologías modernas y las estructuras políticas y sociales que las apoyaban). Cuestiona los textos: Los post modernos también afirman que los textos -históricos, literarios o de otro tipo-- no tienen autoridad u objetividad inherente para revelar la intención del autor, ni pueden decirnos "que sucedió en realidad". Más bien, estos textos reflejan los prejuicios, cultura y era particulares del escritor. El giro lingüístico: El posmodernismo argumenta que el lenguaje moldea nuestro pensamiento y que no puede haber ningún pensamiento sin lenguaje. Así que el lenguaje crea literalmente la verdad. La verdad como perspectiva: Además, la verdad es cuestión de perspectiva o contexto más que ser algo universal. No tenemos acceso a la realidad, a la forma en que son las cosas, sino solamente a lo que nos parece a nosotros
  • Postmodernismi (myös jälki- tai myöhäismodernismi) on taiteen ja filosofian suuntaus. Postmodernismin syntymiseen vaikutti teollistuneen yhteiskunnan muuttuminen toisen maailmansodan jälkeen. Populaarikulttuurin merkitys kasvoi, viestimet muuttuivat ja kulttuuri kansainvälistyi. Puhutaan myös postmodernista elämäntavasta, jossa kulutuksella ja viestintävälineillä on suuri merkitys ja ainekset eri suunnista sekoittuvat – kuten viihde ja korkeakulttuuri. Postmodernin yhteiskunnan on katsottu koostuvan yhä moninaisemmista ja alati vaihtuvista osakulttuureista. Postmodernismi on monimerkityksinen ja kiistelty käsite. Eri aloilla ja eri teoreetikoilla moderni ja postmoderni tarkoittavat usein eri asioita. Etuliitteen post- tai jälki- sisältävä käsite postmodernismi tarkoittaa modernismin jälkeen tulevaa aikakautta tai tyyliä. Keskeistä on siis käsitys, että modernismista on siirretty uuteen kauteen. Postmodernismista alettiin keskustella 1960-luvulla Yhdysvalloissa kirjallisuuden tutkimuksessa. 1970-luvulla keskustelu postmodernismista siirtyi arkkitehtuurin ja sitten kuvataiteen aloille. Postmodernista filosofiasta alettiin keskustella 1970- ja 80-luvuilla.
  • Le postmodernisme désigne un mouvement artistique, théorisé par le critique d'art Charles Jencks, qui engage une rupture ironique avec les conventions anhistoriques du modernisme en architecture et en urbanisme, tout particulièrement avec les prétentions à conclure l'histoire et à ignorer la géographie. Dans Le Langage de l'architecture post-moderne, paru à Londres en 1977, qui est le livre-manifeste de ce mouvement, Charles Jencks réinscrit l'architecture dans le fil d'une histoire générale des mouvements artistiques, incite à un retour aux compositions et aux motifs empruntés au passé, à un éclectisme s'appuyant sur un regard nouveau portant aussi bien sur la culture populaire et son expression architecturale (le « vernaculaire commercial » de Robert Venturi), que sur la culture savante (le « néoclassique » de Ricardo Bofill). En ce sens, le postmodernisme est un courant majeur de la création architecturale, et plus généralement artistique, de la fin du XX siècle. Il a introduit une distance critique par rapport au discours moderniste devenu hégémonique. Considéré aux USA comme un terme purement stylistique, le postmodernisme est la réintroduction de l'éclectisme en architecture, mais en englobant aussi le Modernisme et le Style international, reconsidérés comme de simples moments de l'histoire de l'architecture avec lesquels on a pris ses distances. Mais en Europe, ce discours critique porte aussi sur la décontextualisation sociale, politique et géographique de l'urbanisme moderne admettant des contre-propositions comme celles de Christopher Alexander ou de François Spoerry. Bien qu'ils soient souvent employés indifféremment, il importe de distinguer le postmodernisme en tant que mouvement artistique, du postmoderne au sens philosophique ou littéraire, lesquels ont souvent des sens contradictoire ou opposés, ainsi que de la réalité postmoderne, et de l'esthétique de la postmodernité, En effet, le postmoderne est à l'origine un paradigme esthétique, inventé au tournant des années 1970 par le critique littéraire américain Ihab Hassan (en), pour désigner une forme d'hypermodernisme en littérature. Le mot postmoderne, dont on trouve d'autres précurseurs, a également été repris par le philosophe Jean-François Lyotard, avec la publication en 1979 de La condition postmoderne - rapport sur le savoir puis de lettres ouvertes recueillies dans Le postmoderne expliqué aux enfants. Parmi les différents auteurs ayant utilisé la notion de postmodernité, dans des sens certes très variables, on trouve par exemple le critique littéraire Federico de Onís, qui opposait précisément le postmoderne à l'ultra-moderne. Avec l'essai de Habermas (La Modernité, un projet inachevé, 1981, écrit en réponse à la Biennale de Venise de 1980, marquée par l'influence de Jencks), ces deux derniers textes ont contribué à donner une épaisseur philosophique au terme. De nombreux autres essais leur ont succédé, notamment celui de Fredric Jameson en 1984, qui définit le postmodernisme comme la « logique culturelle du capitalisme tardif », en référence à la périodisation établie par l'historien marxiste Ernest Mandel, ce qui donne à la notion une extension civilisationnelle beaucoup plus large que le seul usage dans le champ architectural. Bien que généalogiquement toutes liées, les différentes acceptions philosophiques et littéraires du paradigme postmoderne sont foisonnantes, en venant souvent à se corriger voire à s'exclure mutuellement. Il convient donc d'être toujours attentif à l'auteur auquel on se réfère pour éviter les contresens.
  • A posztmodern a modernizmus utáni korszak megnevezése, nagyjából az 1960-as évek végétől. Lyotard a posztmodern meghatározásaként a következőket mondja: „Végsőkig leegyszerűsítve, a „posztmodernt” a nagy elbeszélésekkel szembeni bizalmatlanságban határozom meg. ” Mit is értünk nagy narratívák – vagy más helyütt meta-elbeszélések – alatt? Lyotard a következőket nevezi meg: „az ész és a szabadság progresszív emancipációja, a munka (az elidegenedett érték forrása a kapitalizmusban) haladó vagy pusztító emancipációja, az egész emberiség gazdagodása a tőkés techno-tudomány révén, sőt, ha magát a kereszténységet is a modernhez számítjuk, akkor a teremtmények üdvözülése a lélek megtérésével a vértanúi szeretettől a krisztusi elbeszéléshez. ” A posztmodern gondolkodás szerint a meta-narratívák a fennálló társadalmi rendszer intézményeinek a fenntartására szolgáltak. Tulajdonképpen a világ ideológiai hátterét adták. Helyesen jegyzi meg Pásztor János, hogy Auschwitz ténye önmagáért beszél, puszta ténye cáfolata a modern haladáseszménynek. Ennek helyébe lép a posztmodern, aminek jellemzője a bizalmatlanság és a bizonytalanság . A meta-narratívák legitimációként szolgálták a társadalmat, megadva annak metafizikai megalapozását.
  • Postmodernismo è un termine che era stato usato fin dagli anni intorno al 1970 in vari campi, per esempio John Watkins Chapman aveva parlato di uno stile di pittura Postmoderno per andare oltre l'impressionismo francese; nel 1914 un certo J. M. Thompson aveva usato il termine per indicare alcuni cambi di atteggiamenti e credenze in un suo articolo che trattava di religione. Nel 1917 Rudolf Pannwitz aveva usato il termine per indicare un certo orientamento del pensiero filosofico, la sua idea di postmodernismo derivava dall'analisi che aveva fatto Friedrich Nietzsche circa la modernità e la sua fine a causa della decadenza e il nichilismo. Nel 1934 il termine “postmoderno” compare nel saggio di Federico de Onís relativo alla poesia latinoamericana e con il libro dello storico Arnold J. Toynbee A Study of History, di qualche anno successivo. In tutti i casi citati tuttavia i riferimenti sono estemporanei e fondamentalmente privi di seguito. Il termine acquista, invece, il suo attuale significato allorché alcuni studiosi di letteratura americana cominciano ad applicare alla critica letteraria i metodi ed i linguaggi tipici del cosiddetto “post-strutturalismo” francese. Le prime definizioni del postmoderno risalgono a questo periodo. Letteralmente, esso contiene il senso di una posteriorità nei confronti del moderno, ma non tanto in senso cronologico: esso "indica piuttosto un diverso modo di rapportarsi al moderno, che non è né di opposizione (antimoderno) né di superamento (ultramoderno)". Viene applicato ad un vasto insieme di sviluppi nella teoria critica, in filosofia, design, architettura, arte, musica, letteratura, religione, psicologia postmoderna, sociologia e cultura. L'uso del termine "postmodernismo" è molto controverso. Talvolta è utilizzato con un significato molto specifico, per riferirsi a teorie caratterizzate da complessità, labirinticità, prospettivismo, eclettismo, relativismo, sincretismo, decostruzionismo o decostruttivismo, nichilismo, anti-Illuminismo o antimodernismo. Altre volte il termine è utilizzato con significati molto più generali. Coloro che non ritengono il post-modernismo come una vera nuova era storica lo usano per fare riferimento al "tardo modernismo".
  • 포스트모더니즘(postmodernism, post- 뒤의 또는 반대의, modernism 모더니즘)은 이성중심주의에 대해 근본적인 회의를 내포하고 있는 사상적 경향의 총칭이다. 2차 세계대전 및 여성운동, 학생운동, 흑인민권운동과 구조주의 이후에 일어난 해체현상의 영향을 받았다. 탈중심적 다원적 사고, 탈이성적 사고가 포스트모더니즘의 가장 큰 특징으로 1960년대 프랑스와 미국를 중심으로 일어났다. 리오타르, 보드리야르 등이 대표적인 포스트모더니즘 철학자이다. 포스트모더니즘은 용어 자체가 역사학적 구분에서의 근현대에 스쳐간 수많은 것들을 포함하기 때문에 학자, 지식인, 역사가 사이에서 그 정의를 두고 극한 논쟁이 일고 있는 개념이기도 하다. 그럼에도, 포스트모던적 생각이 철학, 예술, 비판 이론, 문학, 건축, 디자인, 마케팅/비즈니스, 역사해석, 문화 등 다방면에 걸쳐 영향을 끼쳤다는 사실에는 대부분 동의한다. 포스트모더니티(postmodernity)는 포스트모더니즘과는 구분되는 용어로 사용되며, 포스트모더니즘이 발생한 시기의 사회·문화의 접변 현상만을 가리킨다.
  • . Pós-modernidade ou Pós-modernismo é a condição sócio-cultural e estética que prevalece no capitalismo contemporâneo após a queda do Muro de Berlim e a consequente crise das ideologias que dominaram o século XX. O uso do termo se tornou corrente embora haja controvérsias quanto ao seu significado e a sua pertinência. Algumas escolas de pensamento tem-na como o fundamento do alegado esgotamento do movimento modernista, que dominou a estética e a cultura até final do século XX, substituindo, assim, a modernidade. Outros, por sua vez, afirmam que a pós-modernidade seria a extensão da modernidade, englobando-a para cobrir o desenvolvimento no mundo, onde houve a perda da aura do objeto artístico pela sua reprodução em múltiplas formas: fotografias, vídeos, etc. (Walter Benjamin). Pós-modernidade pode significar uma resposta pessoal para uma sociedade pós-moderna, as condições na sociedade que fazem-na pós-moderna ou o estado de ser que é associado a uma sociedade pós-moderna. Em muitos contextos, poderia ser distinguido de pós-modernismo, a consciente adoção de filosofias pós-modernas ou de seus traços na arte, literatura e sociedade. O crítico brasileiro Mário Pedrosa foi um dos primeiros a utilizar este termo em 1964 (Madeira, A. p.1). Em importante artigo sobre a arte de Hélio Oiticica Pedrosa afirmava na ocasião : 20px A esse novo ciclo de vocação antiarte chamaria de arte pós-moderna. 20px Pós-modernidade pode significar uma resposta pessoal para a sociedade pós-moderna. As condições nas quais a sociedade faz-se pós-moderna ou o estado de ser que é associado com uma sociedade pós-moderna. Na maioria dos contextos pode ser distinguida de pós-modernismo, a consciente adoção de filosofias pós-modernas ou traços na arte, literatura e sociedade.
  • Postmodernism är ett begrepp som syftar på en utveckling inom kritisk teori, filosofi, arkitektur, konst, litteratur och kultur som kan beskrivas som antingen sprungen ur eller en reaktion på modernism och modernitet. Postmodernismen har även definierats som trevandet efter något nytt efter det att luften gått ur modernismen. Men vad postmodernism egentligen innebär är inte klart definierat, utan föremål för ständig debatt. Utifrån ett historiskt perspektiv kan man tyda en kronologisk ordning från det moderna till det postmoderna. När man beskriver kulturella tillstånd är det dock viktigt att vara medveten om hur det moderna och det postmoderna existerar parallellt mellan olika kulturella och sociala skikt i vår samtid. Postmodernismen vände sig ifrån tanken på att det fanns fasta värden, absoluta sanningar och jagets existens och kritiserade därmed varje tanke på objektivitet. Istället är allt relationellt och kontextuellt; den postmoderna världsbilden är skeptisk.
  • Chủ nghĩa hậu hiện đại là một xu hướng trong nền văn hóa đương đại được đặc trưng bởi sự chối bỏ sự thật khách quan và siêu tự sự. Chủ nghĩa hậu hiện đại nhấn mạnh vai trò của ngôn ngữ, những quan hệ quyền lực, động cơ thúc đẩy; đặc biệt nó tấn công việc sử dụng những sự phân loại rõ ràng như nam với nữ, bình thường với đồng tính, trắng với đen, đế quốc với thực dân. Chủ nghĩa hậu hiện đại đã ảnh hưởng tới nhiều lĩnh vực văn hóa, bao gồm cả phê bình văn học, xã hội học, ngôn ngữ học, kiến trúc, nghệ thuật thị giác, và âm nhạc. Tư tưởng hậu hiện đại là sự giải thoát có chủ ý từ những cách tiếp cận của chủ nghĩa hiện đại đã thống trị trước đó. Thuật ngữ "hậu hiện đại" bắt nguồn từ sự phê phán tư tưởng khoa học về tính khách quan và tiến bộ gắn liền với sự khai sáng của chủ nghĩa hiện đại. 50px Bài này còn rất sơ khai. 50px
  • Postmodernism is a general and wide-ranging term which is applied to many disciplines, including literature, art, economics, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific or objective efforts to explain reality. There is no general consensus among scholars on the precise definition. In essence, postmodernism is based on the position that reality is not mirrored in human understanding of it, but is rather constructed as the mind tries to understand its own personal reality. Postmodernism is therefore skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the world means to us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, arguing that the outcome of one's own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal. Postmodernism postulates that many, if not all, apparent realities are only social constructs and are therefore subject to change. It claims that there is no absolute truth and that the way people perceive the world is subjective and emphasises the role of language, power relations, and motivations in the formation of ideas and beliefs. In particular it attacks the use of sharp binary classifications such as male versus female, straight versus gay, white versus black, and imperial versus colonial; it holds realities to be plural and relative, and to be dependent on who the interested parties are and the nature of these interests. Postmodernist approaches therefore often consider the ways in which social dynamics, such as power and hierarchy, affect human conceptualizations of the world to have important effects on the way knowledge is constructed and used. Postmodernist thought often emphasizes constructivism, idealism, pluralism, relativism, and scepticism in its approaches to knowledge and understanding. Postmodernism is generally considered to have been conceived during the early twentieth century. Postmodernism gained significant popularity in the 1950s and dominated literature and art by the 1960s. Postmodernism has influenced many disciplines, including religion, literary criticism, sociology, linguistics, architecture, history, anthropology, visual arts, and music.
  • Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Because postmodernism is a reactionary stereotype, it is sometimes used pejoratively to describe writers, artists, or critics who give the impression they believe in no absolute truth or objective reality. For example, it may derogatorily refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by... ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)" or to "a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language". It is also confused with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thinkers.
  • Postmodernism -- generally speaking the cultural era that followed Modernism—is in essence a skeptical interpretive stance or lens through which to view any product of human culture, in particular literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is "a style and concept in the arts characterized by distrust of theories and ideologies and by the drawing of attention to conventions. " It may refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by... ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)", or to "a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language". Postmodernism takes the relativistic position that there is no absolute truth or objective reality, that what we experience as reality is a social construct (solely constructed by individual human minds), that it consists only of our interpretations of what the world means to us individually, and that individual responses to a given cultural product comprise the whole reality of that product. Since individual responses tend to differ from one another and change over time, postmodernist thought is skeptical of explanations that claim to be valid for all human groups, cultures, or times. Instead, it encourages the exploration and comparison of individuals' subjective responses to a given poem, painting, or other cultural product. It examines the role that language, power, and motivation play in the formation of ideas and beliefs. It is skeptical about the accuracy and usefulness of describing people or things in terms of sharply defined either/or categories (male/female, straight/gay, white/black, imperial/colonial). It examines how people's social relationships to one another, such as their relative power or place in a hierarchy, affect how they see the world and how they use their knowldege of it. It emphasizes constructivism, idealism, pluralism, relativism, and scepticism. Postmodernism was developed by academics in the 1950s-1960s in a reaction against scientific efforts to explain reality objectively. It was a fashionable and dominant mode of analysis in many academic circles in the last decades of the twentieth century. Postmodernist thought influenced many disciplines, including religion, literary criticism, sociology, ethics and morality, linguistics, architecture, history, politics, international relations, anthropology, visual arts, and music. Its appeal may be explained partly by the cultural vertigo that can result during periods of rapid social change, where established values may seem to have rapidly eroded and a steady stream of new technological advances produces large changes, heightening uncertainty about the future.
  • Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Because postmodernism is a reactionary stereotype, it is often used pejoratively to describe writers, artists, or critics who give the impression they believe in no absolute truth or objective reality. For example, it may derogatorily refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by... ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)" or to "a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language". It is also confused with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thinkers.
  • Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It may refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by... ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)" or to "a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language". Because postmodernism often describes an overarching reactionary stereotype, it sometimes pejoratively describes writers, artists or critics who give the impression they believe in no absolute truth or objective reality. It is also confused with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thinkers. It has been suggested that the term "postmodernism" is a mere buzzword that means nothing. For example, Dick Hebdige, in "Hiding in the Light," writes: When it becomes possible for a people to describe as ‘postmodern’ the décor of a room, the design of a building, the diegesis of a film, the construction of a record, or a ‘scratch’ video, a television commercial, or an arts documentary, or the ‘intertextual’ relations between them, the layout of a page in a fashion magazine or critical journal, an anti-teleological tendency within epistemology, the attack on the ‘metaphysics of presence’, a general attenuation of feeling, the collective chagrin and morbid projections of a post-War generation of baby boomers confronting disillusioned middle-age, the ‘predicament’ of reflexivity, a group of rhetorical tropes, a proliferation of surfaces, a new phase in commodity fetishism, a fascination for images, codes and styles, a process of cultural, political or existential fragmentation and/or crisis, the ‘de-centring’ of the subject, an ‘incredulity towards metanarratives’, the replacement of unitary power axes by a plurality of power/discourse formations, the ‘implosion of meaning’, the collapse of cultural hierarchies, the dread engendered by the threat of nuclear self-destruction, the decline of the university, the functioning and effects of the new miniaturised technologies, broad societal and economic shifts into a ‘media’, ‘consumer’ or ‘multinational’ phase, a sense (depending on who you read) of ‘placelessness’ or the abandonment of placelessness (‘critical regionalism’) or (even) a generalised substitution of spatial for temporal coordinates - when it becomes possible to describe all these things as ‘Postmodern’ (or more simply using a current abbreviation as ‘post’ or ‘very post’) then it’s clear we are in the presence of a buzzword. Others, such as the British historian Perry Anderson, have argued that the various meanings assigned to the term "postmodernism" only contradict one another on the surface and that a postmodernist analysis can offer insight into contemporary culture. Kaya Yilmaz defends the lack of clarity and consistency in the term's definition. Yilmaz points out that because the theory itself is “anti-essentialist and anti-foundationalist” it is fitting that the term cannot have any essential or fundamental meaning. Yilmaz notes that even the academics who came up with the idea of postmodernism did not define it clearly.
  • Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Because postmodernism often describes an overarching reactionary stereotype, it sometimes pejoratively describes writers, artists, or critics who give the impression they believe in no absolute truth or objective reality. For example, it may derogatorily refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by... ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)" or to "a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language". It is also confused with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thinkers. It has been suggested that the term "postmodernism" is a mere buzzword that means nothing. For example, Dick Hebdige, in "Hiding in the Light," writes: When it becomes possible for a people to describe as ‘postmodern’ the décor of a room, the design of a building, the diegesis of a film, the construction of a record, or a ‘scratch’ video, a television commercial, or an arts documentary, or the ‘intertextual’ relations between them, the layout of a page in a fashion magazine or critical journal, an anti-teleological tendency within epistemology, the attack on the ‘metaphysics of presence’, a general attenuation of feeling, the collective chagrin and morbid projections of a post-War generation of baby boomers confronting disillusioned middle-age, the ‘predicament’ of reflexivity, a group of rhetorical tropes, a proliferation of surfaces, a new phase in commodity fetishism, a fascination for images, codes and styles, a process of cultural, political or existential fragmentation and/or crisis, the ‘de-centring’ of the subject, an ‘incredulity towards metanarratives’, the replacement of unitary power axes by a plurality of power/discourse formations, the ‘implosion of meaning’, the collapse of cultural hierarchies, the dread engendered by the threat of nuclear self-destruction, the decline of the university, the functioning and effects of the new miniaturised technologies, broad societal and economic shifts into a ‘media’, ‘consumer’ or ‘multinational’ phase, a sense (depending on who you read) of ‘placelessness’ or the abandonment of placelessness (‘critical regionalism’) or (even) a generalised substitution of spatial for temporal coordinates - when it becomes possible to describe all these things as ‘Postmodern’ (or more simply using a current abbreviation as ‘post’ or ‘very post’) then it’s clear we are in the presence of a buzzword. Others, such as the British historian Perry Anderson, have argued that the various meanings assigned to the term "postmodernism" only contradict one another on the surface and that a postmodernist analysis can offer insight into contemporary culture. Kaya Yilmaz defends the lack of clarity and consistency in the term's definition. Yilmaz points out that because the theory itself is “anti-essentialist and anti-foundationalist” it is fitting that the term cannot have any essential or fundamental meaning.
  • Postmodernism -- generally speaking the cultural era that followed Modernism—is in essence a skeptical interpretive stance or lens through which to view any product of human culture, in particular literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is "a style and concept in the arts characterized by distrust of theories and ideologies and by the drawing of attention to conventions. " It may refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by... ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)", or to "a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language". Postmodernism takes the relativistic position that there is no absolute truth or objective reality, that what we experience as reality is a social construct (solely constructed by individual human minds), that it consists only of our interpretations of what the world means to us individually, and that individual responses to a given cultural product comprise the whole reality of that product. Since individual responses tend to differ from one another and change over time, postmodernist thought is skeptical of explanations that claim to be valid for all human groups, cultures, or times. Instead, it encourages the exploration and comparison of individuals' subjective responses to a given poem, painting, or other cultural product. It examines the role that language, power, and motivation play in the formation of ideas and beliefs. It is skeptical about the accuracy and usefulness of describing people or things in terms of sharply defined either/or categories (male/female, straight/gay, white/black, imperial/colonial). It examines how people's social relationships to one another, such as their relative power or place in a hierarchy, affect how they see the world and how they use their knowledge of it. It emphasizes constructivism, idealism, pluralism, relativism, and scepticism. Postmodernism was developed by academics in the 1950s-1960s in a reaction against scientific efforts to explain reality objectively. It was a fashionable and dominant mode of analysis in many academic circles in the last decades of the twentieth century. Postmodernist thought influenced many disciplines, including religion, literary criticism, sociology, ethics and morality, linguistics, architecture, history, politics, international relations, anthropology, visual arts, and music. Its appeal may be explained partly by the cultural vertigo that can result during periods of rapid social change, where established values may seem to have rapidly eroded and a steady stream of new technological advances produces large changes, heightening uncertainty about the future.
  • Postmodernism is a term which describes the postmodernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements. It is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.
  • Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.The term postmodernism has been applied to a host of movements, many in art, music, and literature, that reacted against tendencies in the imperialist phase of capitalism called "modernism," and are typically marked by revival of historical elements and techniques.
  • Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.The term postmodernism has been applied to a host of movements, many in art, music, and literature, that reacted against tendencies in modernism, and are typically marked by revival of historical elements and techniques.
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  • El terme postmodernitat designa genèricament un ampli nombre de moviments artístics, culturals i filosòfics del segle XX definits en divers grau i manera per la seva oposició a (o superació al·legada de) la modernitat (concepte, aquest darrer, similar, però no idèntic, al d'Edat Contemporània).
  • Postmoderna (také postmodernismus) je evropský myšlenkový směr konce 20. století. Tento pojem vznikl na základě krátké, ale vlivné knihy Jeana-Françoise Lyotarda O postmodernismu (La condition postmoderne, 1979, č. 1993). Základním prvkem postmoderny je pluralita názorů a jejich zrovnoprávnění, došlo nejen ke zpochybnění optimistického pohledu na historický vývoj západní civilizace, ale i pohledu na dějiny jako na proces postupného překonávání dřívějších fází.
  • El término posmodernidad o postmodernidad designa generalmente a un amplio número de movimientos artísticos, culturales, literarios y filosóficos del siglo XX, definidos en diverso grado y manera por su oposición o superación de las tendencias de la Edad Moderna.
  • Postmodernism is a range of conceptual frameworks and ideologies that are defined in opposition to those commonly associated with ideologies of modernity and modernist notions of knowledge and science, such as formalism, materialism, metaphysics, positivism, realism, reductionism, and structuralism. Postmodernism is not a philosophical movement, but rather a number of philosophical and critical methods.
  • Postmodernismi (myös jälki- tai myöhäismodernismi) on taiteen ja filosofian suuntaus. Postmodernismin syntymiseen vaikutti teollistuneen yhteiskunnan muuttuminen toisen maailmansodan jälkeen. Populaarikulttuurin merkitys kasvoi, viestimet muuttuivat ja kulttuuri kansainvälistyi. Puhutaan myös postmodernista elämäntavasta, jossa kulutuksella ja viestintävälineillä on suuri merkitys ja ainekset eri suunnista sekoittuvat – kuten viihde ja korkeakulttuuri.
  • Le postmodernisme désigne un mouvement artistique, théorisé par le critique d'art Charles Jencks, qui engage une rupture ironique avec les conventions anhistoriques du modernisme en architecture et en urbanisme, tout particulièrement avec les prétentions à conclure l'histoire et à ignorer la géographie.
  • ポストモダン(英: Postmodern)とは、「モダン(近代)の次」という意味であり、モダニズム(近代主義)がその成立の条件を失った(と思われた)時代のこと。ポストモダニズム(Postmodernism)とは、そのような時代を背景として成立した、モダニズムを批判する文化上の運動のこと。主に哲学・思想・文学・建築の分野で用いられる語。
  • A posztmodern a modernizmus utáni korszak megnevezése, nagyjából az 1960-as évek végétől. Lyotard a posztmodern meghatározásaként a következőket mondja: „Végsőkig leegyszerűsítve, a „posztmodernt” a nagy elbeszélésekkel szembeni bizalmatlanságban határozom meg.
  • 포스트모더니즘(postmodernism, post- 뒤의 또는 반대의, modernism 모더니즘)은 이성중심주의에 대해 근본적인 회의를 내포하고 있는 사상적 경향의 총칭이다. 2차 세계대전 및 여성운동, 학생운동, 흑인민권운동과 구조주의 이후에 일어난 해체현상의 영향을 받았다. 탈중심적 다원적 사고, 탈이성적 사고가 포스트모더니즘의 가장 큰 특징으로 1960년대 프랑스와 미국를 중심으로 일어났다. 리오타르, 보드리야르 등이 대표적인 포스트모더니즘 철학자이다. 포스트모더니즘은 용어 자체가 역사학적 구분에서의 근현대에 스쳐간 수많은 것들을 포함하기 때문에 학자, 지식인, 역사가 사이에서 그 정의를 두고 극한 논쟁이 일고 있는 개념이기도 하다. 그럼에도, 포스트모던적 생각이 철학, 예술, 비판 이론, 문학, 건축, 디자인, 마케팅/비즈니스, 역사해석, 문화 등 다방면에 걸쳐 영향을 끼쳤다는 사실에는 대부분 동의한다.
  • Postmodernismo è un termine che era stato usato fin dagli anni intorno al 1970 in vari campi, per esempio John Watkins Chapman aveva parlato di uno stile di pittura Postmoderno per andare oltre l'impressionismo francese; nel 1914 un certo J. M. Thompson aveva usato il termine per indicare alcuni cambi di atteggiamenti e credenze in un suo articolo che trattava di religione.
  • Postmodernisme is een stroming in de filosofie en de kunst die gezien wordt als een reactie op en een radicale afscheuring van het modernisme. Echter, postmodernisme heeft ook veel elementen van het existentialisme van de jaren '40 en '50 meegenomen in zijn ontwikkeling.
  • Postmodernizm – prąd myślowy odwołujący się do poczucia końca historii i wielkich narracji.
  • Postmodernisme er en betegnelse på ulike retninger innenfor humaniora, samfunnsvitenskap og kunst, fra annen halvdel av 1900-tallet til første del av 2000-tallet. Selve begrepet «postmodernisme» er omstridt, i likhet med de ulike tankeretningene og metodologiene som kan inkluderes i begrepet. Enkelte later til å betrakte «postmodernismen» som enda en blant mylderet av «ismer» innenfor modernismen; andre mener det dreier seg om en helt ny retning i idéhistorien.
  • . Pós-modernidade ou Pós-modernismo é a condição sócio-cultural e estética que prevalece no capitalismo contemporâneo após a queda do Muro de Berlim e a consequente crise das ideologias que dominaram o século XX. O uso do termo se tornou corrente embora haja controvérsias quanto ao seu significado e a sua pertinência.
  • Постмодерни́зм — термин, обозначающий структурно сходные явления в мировой общественной жизни и культуре второй половины XX века: он употребляется как для характеристики постнеклассического типа философствования, так и для комплекса стилей в художественном искусстве. Постмодерн — состояние современной культуры, включающее в себя предпостнеклассическую философскую парадигму, до-постмодернистское искусство, а также массовую культуру этой эпохи.
  • Postmodernism är ett begrepp som syftar på en utveckling inom kritisk teori, filosofi, arkitektur, konst, litteratur och kultur som kan beskrivas som antingen sprungen ur eller en reaktion på modernism och modernitet. Postmodernismen har även definierats som trevandet efter något nytt efter det att luften gått ur modernismen. Men vad postmodernism egentligen innebär är inte klart definierat, utan föremål för ständig debatt.
  • Постмодерні́зм — світоглядно-мистецький напрям, що в останні десятиліття 20 століття приходить на зміну модернізму. Цей напрям — продукт постіндустріальної епохи, епохи розпаду цілісного погляду на світ, руйнування систем — світоглядно-філософських, економічних, політичних.
  • Chủ nghĩa hậu hiện đại là một xu hướng trong nền văn hóa đương đại được đặc trưng bởi sự chối bỏ sự thật khách quan và siêu tự sự. Chủ nghĩa hậu hiện đại nhấn mạnh vai trò của ngôn ngữ, những quan hệ quyền lực, động cơ thúc đẩy; đặc biệt nó tấn công việc sử dụng những sự phân loại rõ ràng như nam với nữ, bình thường với đồng tính, trắng với đen, đế quốc với thực dân.
  • Postmodernism is a general and wide-ranging term which is applied to many disciplines, including literature, art, economics, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific or objective efforts to explain reality. There is no general consensus among scholars on the precise definition.
  • Postmodernism -- generally speaking the cultural era that followed Modernism—is in essence a skeptical interpretive stance or lens through which to view any product of human culture, in particular literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is "a style and concept in the arts characterized by distrust of theories and ideologies and by the drawing of attention to conventions.
  • Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Because postmodernism is a reactionary stereotype, it is sometimes used pejoratively to describe writers, artists, or critics who give the impression they believe in no absolute truth or objective reality.
  • Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It may refer to "any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by...
  • Postmodernism is a term which describes the postmodernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements. It is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism.
  • Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism.
rdfs:label
  • Postmoderna
  • Postmodernitat
  • Postmodernism
  • Posmodernidad
  • Postmodernisme
  • Postmodernism
  • Chủ nghĩa hậu hiện đại
  • Постмодернизм
  • Postmodernizm (filozofia)
  • 포스트모더니즘
  • Pós-modernidade
  • Posztmodern
  • Postmodernismo
  • Postmodernismi
  • Postmodernisme
  • ポストモダン
  • Постмодернізм
  • Postmodernisme
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